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[原创] 德怀尔的调色盘——学术不端著作上榜录

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发表于 2017-4-23 14:38:56 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 Gustavus 于 2017-4-24 11:09 编辑

菲利普·德怀尔(Philip Dwyer)算是拿破仑时代研究者中较为著名的澳大利亚学者,他的拿破仑传记(Path to Power,Citizen Emperor)颇有争议,在series等地搞得“狼烟遍起”,本贴主要是提一下此前出版的《塔列朗》一书
《塔列朗》出版后,查尔斯顿学院的William Olejniczak在法国历史评论发了一篇长书评,
http://www.h-france.net/vol5revi ... ews/olejniczak.html
前文略过,其重点部分是:
然而,在德怀尔书中,到处存在着一个特征,若干段落与伯纳德(Bernard)书中高度雷同。特征是一再重复伯纳德的前作中的短语和段落,只是略加修改和删减,但在多数场合并未给出参考文献。

在网文界挂抄袭时调色盘是常用工具,这里不妨一试:
J. Bernard, p. 114:
The mission had come at an auspicious moment so far as Talleyrand himself was concerned. "I had been anxious to leave France for some time, for I was tired and disgusted." He had, only a short time before, on the advice of Gouverneur Morris, suggested himself to Narbonne for the post of minister to Vienna and had been disappointed when De Lessart, the Foreign Minister, had refused him the appointment--very possibly at the insistence of Marie-Antoinette, who undoubtedly would have preferred a friend and confidant to represent France in her native land. It is also likely that the Feuillant ministry was not insensitive to the effect that the presence of a renegade and excommunicated bishop might produce at the court of his Apostolic Majesty of Austria. The mission to London, coming as it did upon the heels of this rejection, had been warmly received by Talleyrand. It presented the opportunity not only to undertake a task of considerable importance for France, but also to renew acquaintances among the émigrés with which England, especially London, was filled.

Philip Dwyer, p. 47:
Knowing that the mission would probably be a failure, Talleyrand nevertheless accepted. As far as he was concerned, it could not have come at a better time. Tired and disgusted with the turn the Revolution had taken, he simply wanted to get out of France and especially Paris where the atmosphere was becoming increasingly dangerous. He had been looking for a position as ambassador for some months: it was a means of maintaining contact with power without the risk of compromising oneself in factional politics. He had stepped forward for the position of ambassador to Vienna, but had been rejected by Delessart, possibly as the insistence of Marie-Antoinette who undoubtedly would have preferred a friend and confident to represent France in her father's court. His position as a former member of the Assembly, which precluded him from being nominated ambassador for a period of two years, was also a stumbling block. Nevertheless, the opportunity to leave for London in a semi-official capacity came soon after this initial rejection, and it was warmly welcomed by Talleyrand. It not only presented the opportunity to undertake a task of considerable importance for the government, but also perhaps to renew some acquaintances with the émigré population in London, and to carry out some personal financial dealings.

J. Bernard, p. 487:
Yet his initial determination to bring down Richelieu's government at any cost showed itself not only in his vitriolic attacks on Richelieu himself and on Decazes, but by the astonishing political alliances that he formed in order to bring this about. The first such occasion was in 1817, when the government sponsored a bill in the chamber extending the franchise to anyone in France who paid at least 300 francs in annual taxes. The bill was heatedly opposed by the ultras, led by the Count d'Artois and his sons--Talleyrand's old enemies. Talleyrand, who had always favored liberalization of the voting law, on the one hand, and who had, on the other, always opposed most vehemently Artois' party of reactionaries, now did a complete turnabout. Fully aware that defeat of the bill could only weaken the government, undermine the prestige of the throne and spread discontent among the people, he placed himself at the head of the opposition to it and succeeded in defeating it by arguing that the proposed law was contrary to the best interests of legitimacy.
Philip Dwyer, p. 175:
Talleyrand's stance got him involved in some astonishing political alliances. In 1817, for example, when the government sponsored a bill in the Chamber extending the franchise to anyone in France who paid at least 300 francs in annual taxes, the bill was heatedly opposed by the ultras, led by the count d'Artois and his sons. Talleyrand, on the other hand, who had always favored liberalisation of the voting law, and who had always opposed Artois's party of reactionaries, now did a complete flip. Fully aware that the defeat of the bill would only weaken the government, undermine the prestige of the throne and spread discontent among the people, he placed himself at the head of the opposition to the bill, and succeeded in defeating it by arguing that the proposed law was contrary to the best interests of legitimacy.

其余不端部分还有许多,这里不再赘述,读者可自行前往原链接欣赏
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 楼主| 发表于 2017-4-23 14:46:17 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Gustavus 于 2017-4-23 14:47 编辑

德怀尔的回复也很有意思,不得不在此贴出,翻译就先免了,实在是有许多“精妙”之处

The reviewer is quite correct in stating that there are a number of passages too close to a biography written in the early 1970s by J. F. Bernard. The similarities came as a shock to me--I am my harshest critic--all the more so since I gave the manuscript to a number of colleagues to read beforehand, some of whom are perfectly familiar with the literature. At the time, I was writing an undergraduate textbook with a limited amount of space (80,000 words); paraphrasing secondary sources was a legitimate part of the preparatory process although at some point in the note-taking that took place over a number of years I obviously failed to clearly distinguish between what I had paraphrased and what were my own thoughts. Having said that, I have not used arguments or ideas from other sources unacknowledged. The passages cited, moreover, are descriptive, and in one instance contain footnotes that are not to be found in Bernard. I would reiterate that there are significant differences in interpretation between Bernard, a standard, popular biography without a compelling thesis, and my own work, whose arguments I have outlined above. It is a pity that the reviewer did not point this out.
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发表于 2017-4-23 17:50:01 | 显示全部楼层
这种张冠李戴算啥

Frazer, letter

Franklin, Waterloo

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 楼主| 发表于 2017-4-23 20:02:36 | 显示全部楼层
拉摩的侄儿 发表于 2017-4-23 17:50
这种张冠李戴算啥

Frazer, letter

若张冠李戴为真,也就是失误
跟不端还是差很多的
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发表于 2017-4-24 11:30:45 | 显示全部楼层
另一个很神奇的学术造假事件

鲍登(Bowden)在他的Napoleon and Austerlitz一书中提到一本名为Die Schlacht bei Austerlitz am 2. Dezember 1805的书(525页),他说此书在维也纳于1912年出版,作者叫Derselbe

可实际上,此书作者是奥匈中校Eberhard Mayerhoffer von Vedrepolje,Derselbe系德文“同上”之意,作者不通德文,径直抄来作为“参考”
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发表于 2017-6-11 04:12:41 | 显示全部楼层
装甲掷弹熊 发表于 2017-4-24 11:30
另一个很神奇的学术造假事件

鲍登(Bowden)在他的Napoleon and Austerlitz一书中提到一本名为Die Schla ...

这个算是大乌龙。这本书观点倾向性明显,比较“亲法”,但也不是一无是处。对法方的资料整理和使用还是不错的。
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发表于 2017-6-12 00:33:15 | 显示全部楼层
朔风 发表于 2017-6-11 04:12
这个算是大乌龙。这本书观点倾向性明显,比较“亲法”,但也不是一无是处。对法方的资料整理和使用还是 ...

法军材料除了有些地方开脑洞(比如哈斯拉赫-永京根脑洞了依靠教堂防御)之外,总体上的确不错
不过联军真的是一个字都不能信(引用安东连科和Duffy的部分除外),不然奥斯特利茨就成了亡灵军团大战法军了
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发表于 2017-6-13 07:44:44 | 显示全部楼层
装甲掷弹熊 发表于 2017-6-12 00:33
法军材料除了有些地方开脑洞(比如哈斯拉赫-容金根脑洞了依靠教堂防御)之外,总体上的确不错
不过联军 ...

这本书我最近也在翻阅,主要看法军,剩下的当作战争小说来看还是很精彩的
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 楼主| 发表于 2017-7-26 08:45:09 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Gustavus 于 2017-7-26 08:57 编辑

德怀尔又中一枪

氏著Path to Power序章煞有介事提到奥军可能误认为法军有个军官前来谈判,所以下手不够狠,正在阿科拉/阿科莱(Arcola/Arcole)桥头的波拿巴可能由此躲过一劫
A number of other officers were killed or wounded in the attempt to take the bridge. It is remarkable that Bonaparte was not among them, and this may very well have been because the Austrians ceased fire believing that an officer was approaching them for talks.3
3. Jean-Gabriel Peltier, Examen de la campagne de Buonaparte en Italie par un témoin oculaire Paris, 1814), pp. 73–4.

这事情甚至搞得Gueniffey在其大作波拿巴里都引用此描述

可实情如何?Examen de la campagne de Buonaparte en Italie par un témoin oculaire这本书恰好gallica有存货,http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k44265w?rk=64378;0翻到第74页:


博利厄(Beaulieu)?!原来这地方写的是洛迪桥头……
拿洛迪来讲阿科拉/阿科莱,真是…………

当然,毕竟按照Hans Karl Weiss的说法
I regard Dwyer as usless source for gaining knowledge about military history
http://www.napoleon-series.org/cgi-bin/forum/archive2015_config.pl?md=read;id=171134

至少在桥头之战上,这个评价是不冤枉的,因为德怀尔此处的眼力确实糟糕,就算不提拿洛迪鱼目混珠,此书作者Jean-Gabriel Peltier是个真真正正的小报作者,靠着脑补和拼贴过活的家伙……

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发表于 2017-7-27 09:11:25 | 显示全部楼层
Gustavus 发表于 2017-7-26 08:45
德怀尔又中一枪

氏著Path to Power序章煞有介事提到奥军可能误认为法军有个军官前来谈判,所以下手不够 ...

Jean-Gabriel Peltier此人貌似是个靠贩奴致富的半吊子王党写手,跑路到英国后继续和他的王党小伙伴们一起发表反革命的反动言论
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发表于 2017-7-27 09:26:40 | 显示全部楼层
这事情甚至搞得Gueniffey在其大作波拿巴里都引用此描述


我最近也在读这本书,刚读到第十章意大利政局部分。第十一章阿尔科拉之战的确提到奥军停火,说法出自Peltier,看来格尼菲选材也并不完全严谨。
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发表于 2017-7-27 13:24:00 | 显示全部楼层
朔风 发表于 2017-7-27 09:26
我最近也在读这本书,刚读到第十章意大利政局部分。第十一章阿尔科拉之战的确提到奥军停火,说法出自Pe ...

从转引自Dwyer看,Gueniffey恐怕虽然知道Peltier此人,却是没有看过这本1814年出的书的……
9. J.-G. Peltier, Examen de la campagne de Buonaparte en Italie par un témoin oculaire (1814), quoted in Dwyer, Napoleon, 2.

后文注释倒是提到了他传播谣言后对簿公堂的事情

Despite the dates—Napoléon-Charles was born on October 18, 1802—a rumor soon spread, peddled by the Bonapartes themselves, Frédéric Masson tells us: Napoleon was Hortense’s lover, had gotten her pregnant, forced Louis to marry his mistress, and then banished his young brother and brought the young woman back to live with him. From the salons in Paris this “article of faith” crossed the Channel: to avoid feeding the rumor, Hortense had to leave the Tuileries and take up residence in a private town house bought by her father-in-law.149
(这地方译文有点问题,应该是马松确认谣言是波拿巴家族里有人制造的
En dépit des dates — Napoléon-Charles naitra le 18 octobre 1802 —, la rumeur se répandit bientot, colportée, assure Frédéric Masson, par les Bonaparte eux-mêmes : Napoléon était l’amant d’Hortense, lui avait fait un enfant, obligé Louis à épouser sa maitresse, éloigné son frère et fait revenir la jeune femme auprès de lui. Des salons parisiens, cet 'article de foi' traversa la Manche : pour ne pas alimenter la rumeur, Hortense dut quitter les Tuileries et emménager dans un hotel particulier acheté par son beau-père


149. Masson, Napoléon et sa famille, 2:146–164. In London, Jean-Gabriel Peltier, the former editor of the Actes des apotres, was spreading these rumors in his newspaper, L’Ambigu. The Peace of Amiens made it possible to prosecute him. The trial took place in England on February 21, 1803; Peltier was sentenced to pay a fine. On July 25, 1802, Otto, the French minister in London, had demanded, on the first consul’s orders, wider prosecution of all those who had repeated such rumors (see J.-G. Peltier, The Trial of John Peltier, 229–232, and Bourrienne, Mémoires, 4:306–307). Peltier’s trial proved to be very profitable for him; he acquired new readers and continued to insult and outrage the “odd little Corsican” until the fall of Napoleon (Mitton, La Presse française, 224–225).

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发表于 2017-7-28 13:12:09 | 显示全部楼层
朔风 发表于 2017-7-27 09:11
Jean-Gabriel Peltier此人貌似是个靠贩奴致富的半吊子王党写手,跑路到英国后继续和他的王党小伙伴们一起 ...

咦,朔风大大回来啦~

点评

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支持: 5
  发表于 2017-7-29 03:57

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参与人数 1军饷 +102 收起 理由
装甲掷弹熊 + 102 好久不见

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发表于 2017-7-29 03:57:33 | 显示全部楼层
sunjiaxin 发表于 2017-7-28 13:12
咦,朔风大大回来啦~

别来无恙!
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发表于 2017-7-31 00:32:40 | 显示全部楼层

暂存

本帖最后由 拉摩的侄儿 于 2017-7-31 13:47 编辑

说一个比较严重,一度让人质疑霍夫施勒尔学术人品,也直接导致了霍大帝作为一个学术明星陨落的事件。先上一张图,出自霍夫施勒尔的German victory 334页。

这里说的是6月15日的齐滕事件,即当天齐滕是在何时向威灵顿发出了法军入侵的消息,而威灵顿又是何时收到的?
这个问题,英国和普鲁士学界一直持两种相反的观点,普鲁士一方认为,齐滕在凌晨5点之前就向威灵顿发出了法军入侵的消息,在上午9点收到消息的威灵顿对此置若罔闻。英国一方认为,齐滕不可能在这么早就向威灵顿发出警报,威灵顿直到15日傍晚才收到法军入侵的消息,并且还是通过荷兰人得到的。

作为前一种观点的坚持者,霍夫施勒尔在这里写道,进行了细致的研究后,普夫卢克-哈通总结说,威灵顿在上午9点就收到了齐滕的消息,但是在其内容得到证实前一直按兵不动。不仅如此,霍夫施勒尔还在不同场合不止一次的声称,普夫卢克-哈通与自己持相同的观点。
但是如果我们查阅普夫卢克-哈通的原著Julius von Pflugk-Harttung, Vorgeschichte der Schlacht bei Belle-Alliance – Wellington  (Berlin, 1903),以及他专门讲这个问题的Julius von Pflugk-Harttung, “Die Preußische Berichterstattung an Wellington vor der Schlacht bei Ligny”, Historisches Jahrbuch 24 (1903),就会发现,普夫卢克-哈通的观点不仅与霍夫施勒尔的观点相反,而且正是他拆穿了齐滕等人的谎言。
第一本书的第50页和第二篇文章的57页,普夫卢克-哈通都清楚的列出了自己的结论:在6月15日上午,齐滕仅向威灵顿或米夫林发出了一条消息,它在上午8点到9点间离开沙勒罗瓦,抵达布鲁塞尔的时间是傍晚6至7点间。作为一个能熟练运用各种德文材料的德语高手,霍夫施勒尔自然不可能读不懂普夫卢克-哈通说了什么。除了说他“欺负其他人不懂德语”,恐怕很难找到另外的理由。

至于普夫卢克-哈通是如何将齐滕等人的说法证伪的,因为内容实在太多,稍后我会尝试梳理出它的大致脉络。

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 楼主| 发表于 2017-7-31 13:11:22 | 显示全部楼层
拉摩的侄儿 发表于 2017-7-31 00:32
说一个比较严重,一度让人质疑霍夫施勒尔学术人品,也直接导致了霍大帝作为一个学术明星陨落的事件。先上一 ...

看了几遍,觉得这贴子可以转到调色盘了……
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发表于 2017-7-31 15:04:10 | 显示全部楼层
拉摩的侄儿 发表于 2017-7-31 00:32
说一个比较严重,一度让人质疑霍夫施勒尔学术人品,也直接导致了霍大帝作为一个学术明星陨落的事件。先上一 ...

不过最后还是会德语的Pedlow把他“揭穿”了……
另外,P-H给L-V找过不少茬
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发表于 2017-8-6 00:52:30 | 显示全部楼层
朔风 发表于 2017-7-27 09:26
我最近也在读这本书,刚读到第十章意大利政局部分。第十一章阿尔科拉之战的确提到奥军停火,说法出自Pe ...
This is certainly an excellent biography, but it is not without flaws. Military and diplomatic history are clearly not Gueniffey’s métier.

看到一则书评:
http://www.h-france.net/vol16reviews/vol16no28caiani.pdf
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发表于 2017-8-6 21:54:34 | 显示全部楼层
装甲掷弹熊 发表于 2017-8-6 00:52
看到一则书评:
http://www.h-france.net/vol16reviews/vol16no28caiani.pdf

你又砸我生意
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发表于 2017-8-6 22:23:32 | 显示全部楼层
装甲掷弹熊 发表于 2017-7-31 15:04
不过最后还是会德语的Pedlow把他“揭穿”了……
另外,P-H给L-V找过不少茬


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