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【求助】国外有哪些对王安石变法的评价?

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发表于 2007-11-30 21:49:43 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
如题,
最近要制作一个相关的课件,请各位帮一下忙!:)
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发表于 2007-11-30 22:04:20 | 显示全部楼层
王宰相建立了世界上第一个福利国家。
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发表于 2007-12-1 05:46:18 | 显示全部楼层
Wang Anshi (Chinese: 王安石; Wade-Giles: Wang An-shih, Pinyin: Wáng Ānshí; 1021 - May 21, 1086 [1]) was a Chinese economist, statesman, chancellor and poet of the Song Dynasty who attempted some controversial, major socioeconomic reforms. These reforms constituted the core concepts and motives of the Reformists, while their nemesis, Chancellor Sima Guang, led the Conservative faction against them.
Major Reform
Illustration of Wang Anshi from the Wan Xiao Tang, 1743.
Illustration of Wang Anshi from the Wan Xiao Tang, 1743.

Wang believed that the state was responsible for providing its citizens the essentials for a decent living standard: "The state should take the entire management of commerce, industry, and agriculture into its own hands, with a view to succoring the working classes and preventing them from being ground into the dust by the rich."[citation needed]

Wang came to power in 1069. It was here that he formulated and promulgated New Policies (xin fa 新法). His reforms were classified into three groups: 1) state finance and trade, 2) defense and social order, and 3) education and improving of governance. Some of the finance reforms included paying cash for labor in place of corvee labor, increase the minting of copper coins, improve management of trade, implementing plans to lend farmers money when they planted to be repaid at harvest. He believed that the common people and their well being were the key to the strength of the state and thus he made it a priority to address their needs. [3] To destroy speculation and break up the monopolies, he also initiated a system of fixed commodity prices; and he appointed boards to regulate wages and plan pensions for the aged and unemployed.

A centerpiece of defense and social order reforms was the institution of the baojia system of organizing households. This was done to ensure collective responsibility in society and was later used to strengthen local defense. He also proposed the creation of systems to breed military horses, the more efficient manufacture of weapons and training of the militia. [4]

To improve education and government, he sought to break down the barrier between clerical and official careers as well as improving their supervision to prevent connections being used for personal gain. Tests in law, military affairs and medicine were added to the examination system, with mathematics added in 1104. The National Academy was transformed into a real school rather than simply a holding place for officials waiting for appointments. However, there was deep-seated resistance to the education reforms as it hurt bureaucrats coming in under the old system [5]

Modern observers have noted how remarkably close his theories were to modern concepts of the welfare state and planned economy.
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