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近代日本发展史

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发表于 2009-1-18 14:43:06 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Change and Development of Japan



From seclusion to open door
1.
Japan followed a policy of seclusion since the beginning of the rule of Tokugawa Shogunate.
2.
However Nagasaki was opened to the Dutch and the samurai of the western clans were aware of the development of the western world through the studies of Rangaku (western learning).
3.
These samurai had great influence over their lords, the daimyo, and they supported the opening up of their country.
4.
The American showed great interest in Japan and forced her open by the threat of war in 1854 (Treaty of Kanagawa).

From feudalism to modernization
1.
Japan was ruled by an Emperor (Tenno). But he relied on the help of the chief general (the shogun) to rule the country for him. Lands were distributed to the feudal lords (daimyo) who run their clans with the help of warriors (samurai).
2.
The political institution set up by the Shogun was called the Shogunate (Bakufu), which was then the central government which commanded all the lords, the Daimyo.
3.
From 1603, Japan was in effect ruled by the Tokugawa Shogunate. It practised a policy of seclusion and a rigid caste system. But after long years of peace, the Shogunate became more and more conservative, corrupt and inefficient.
4.
The samurai leaders of the western clans made use of the coming of the Americans to embarrass the Shogunate and worked for the Restoration of the Emperor.
5.
The restoration was successful in 1868 and the new ruler, Meiji (in fact a boy emperor under the influence of the samurai leaders) started a series of reforms to modernize the country.




The Meiji Reform
Aims - To establish a rich country with strong army (Fukoku Kyohei) and to transform Japan into a modern state and then to attain world power status.

Reformers :

The young samurai leaders from the anti-Bakufu clans(especially from Choshu and Satsuma) who had helped the Restoration of the Meiji Emperor. The formed the "Meiji Oligarchy".

The Reforms
Japan borrowed Western technology, customs and institutions. A new army and navy based on western models were established. A western education system was adopted and many students were sent abroad to acquire western knowledge. Western lifestyles were accepted and new codes of law were drafted along western lines. Japan was drastically changed at the end of the 19th century.

Aspects of changes

Related Reforms


Positive Contribution


Remarks

Political
- Creation of a central govt.
- Abolition of feudalism
- Meiji Constitution
Japan became a strong nation state with an efficient central govt.
The Meiji Modernization did not transform Japan into a democratic state.
Social
- Social changes
- Educational reforms
- Judicial reforms

The reforms created a literate population with a strong Western outlook.
Westernisation led to conflicts with Japanese values and moral ethics
Economic
- Fiscal reforms
- Agricultural reforms
- Industrial reforms
Improved agriculture helped to support industrialization. Japan became an industrial nation in East Asia.
Zaibatsu (large financial families) rose up and became influential in Japan politics.
Military
- National conscription Law 1873
- Army reforms on German model
- Naval reforms on German British model
It prepared Japan to become a world power.
Militant nationalism was fostered which in turn developed into expansionism and aggressive imperialism.



The Constitution of 1889 (see the chart in P.197)


The constitution, prepared by Ito Hirobumi, was built upon a combination of the Restoration idea that the Emperor was the source of all power, and the feudal idea that the real power was exercised for the Emperor by his agents. It helped to demonstrate that the Japanese were prepared to meet the westerners by accepting their major political institution. At the same time it was to meet the demand of some clans for participation in the government.


-
the Emperor was "sacred and inviolable" and the source of all power.

-
a Privy Council was created as a policy-making group centred round the Emperor. They were the members from the Genro (elder statesmen who took part in the Restoration).

-
The cabinet had the duty of carrying out administrative affairs. But the individual ministers of the cabinet were responsible to the Emperor, rather than collectively responsible as a cabinet.

-
The Diet consisted of 2 houses, which in theory, had equal powers.
i.
The House of Peers comprised the high-ranking members of the new nobility, the appointees of the emperor, and representatives of the lower-ranking nobles and the higher tax-payers. It was to be a conservative check on the Lower House. It could veto laws passed up to it by Representatives.
ii.
The House of Representatives had members who were elected by limited suffrage.

-
There were many checks on the Diet:-
i..
the emperor could veto any law.
ii.
on the advice of his ministers, the emperor could dissolve the Diet.
iii.
when the Diet was not in session, the emperor could issue imperial decrees which had the same right as laws, until the Diet could take action on them.
iv.
the ministers were responsible not to the Diet, but to the Emperor.
v.
if the Diet failed to pass a new budget, the government could carry out the budget of the previous year - the government would never be left without funds.

vi
the Emperor was financially independent of the Diet. Besides income from the vast imperial lands, the imperial family was granted an annual appropriation of 3 million yen, which did not require the approval of the Diet.
vii.
the Diet had the power to approve constitutional amendments by a 2/3s vote, but only the Emperor could initiate them.
-
The Army had special status in Japan. The ministers of the army and navy had direct access to the emperor (thus equal to the prime minister). The Imperial Ordinance of 1900 limited the appointees to the ministers for war and navy to serving generals and admirals – thus gave the militarists a life-and-death hold over all subsequent cabinets. They could influence policies of the prime minister and the cabinet by threatening to resign.
"The constitution was actually a legal justification for the maintenance of power of the oligarchs." (It was superficially democratic only.)

Modernization or Westernization ?

On the surface Japan's modernization was a process of westernization which included the direct borrowing of Western knowledge, ideas, institutions and customs. In essence, only the form was borrowed from the West selectively. The Meiji Modernization was a process of "Japanisation" of Western practices in the light of Japanese values and traditions.

Definition of Modernization :

"Modern" is only a relative term, not a fixed condition or a point in time. "Modernization" can broadly be defined as a "process" by which a society replaces its "institutions", "ideas" and "practices" that it regards as no longer appropriate. In the late 19th and early 20th century, modernization may have had a somewhat narrow definition: the "far-reaching changes" in non-Western societies that have been stimulated or inspired by the activities/examples of Western nations, or the "adaptation" by non-Western countries of selected Western ideas and techniques to their own peculiar way of life.
Modernization of a country may cover political, social, economic, military and judicial changes : e.g.

political
- the enactment of constitution, the formation of political parties.


Social
- the abolition of feudalism, more social mobility and rise of new social classes, the introduction of universal education.


Economic
- the introduction of land tax, the promotion of industrialization and trade.


Military
- the setting up of a modern army, naval reforms based on the newest model.


Judicial
- the adoption of new codes and the jury system.


Internal political conditions in Japan in early 20th century
Taisho political Crisis - battle between the liberals and the army 1912-13

1.
Rise of intellectuals and middle class led to the rise of liberal and democratic ideas toward the Emperor and the government.

2.
New ideas towards the Emperor and the government
-
Organ Theory – the Japanese sovereignty was belonged to the state, not the Emperor. The Emperor was an organ of a state in charge of the country’s political institutions.
-
Theory of Universal Manhood Suffrage – the Diet should be elected by universal manhood suffrage and the cabinet should be responsible to the Diet. The theory was regarded as dangerous and the advocator, the Universal Suffrage League, was suppressed in 1911.

3.
With the death of Meiji Emperor 1912 and the succession of Taisho Emperor. The army determined to struggle for power. To strengthen its influence, the military ministry requested for an increase in army spending. When the prime minister opposed it the army ministry resigned. The cabinet fell because it could not be formed without the army.

4.
The government could not be formed because the army refused to appoint successor to the army ministry. The prime minister was forced to resign.

5.
Finally Katsura Taro, representing the warlords, was appointed as prime minister, with a new cabinet.

6.
However, public opinion opposed such a government. Opposition political parties asked Katsura to resign. They organised the movement to protect constitutional government and took to the streets.

7.
Katsura requested the Emperor to issue an imperial edict to suppress the opposition. It aroused more public criticism. The diet was suspended twice and it insisted to impeach the prime minister and cast a no-confidence vote against Katsura till he resigned.

8.
The crisis marked the first time when the cabinet was overthrown under the pressure of the masses. It brought a message - it is crucial to secure public support.

9.
The crisis also brought another important message - the army could affect the formation of the cabinet simply by refusing to participate in the cabinet.

External diplomatic conditions of Japan – success in modernization and her pursue for world power status

Russo-Japanese War 1904-05

Basic Causes
1.
Japan’s victory in the Sino-Japanese War encouraged her to follow a more aggressive policy. Besides, the Triple Intervention had humiliated Japan, it was natural that Japan would think of revenge.
2.
Russia and Japan were both interested in Manchuria and Korea, clash was inevitable.

Russo-Japanese Interest in Manchuria and Korea
Russian Interest

Japanese Interest

Russia was ambitious to expand her territorial frontier eastwards for :
1. warm-water ports – the possibility of finding one in Mediterranean was blocked by Britain, she needed to get one from N.E. Asia, esp. strategically close to Beijing and could provide means of controlling China.

2. short-cut for Trans-Siberian Railway, and pass through a populated region.

3. economic interest – Manchuria is rich in minerals, Korea rich in timber and mining resources.

4. extension of control over Korea - to prevent other powers from threatening Russian communication by sea from Port Arthur and Darien to Vladivostok.

Japanese ambition was increased greatly as a result of her victory in Sino-Japanese War.
1. Economic and strategic interest – both Manchuria and Korea were rich in resources; They also could be used as outlet for her population; buffer against foreign expansion eastward, etc.

2. Military consideration - her desire for imperialist expansion, it was logical to choose Manchuria and Korea.

3. Korea - she regarded it as rightfully belonged to her; any power seeking to establish control over it was resented.




Rivalry over the two areas
A. Korea -
1.
Japanese influence was replaced by Russian unexpectedly:-

Japanese minister in Korea tried to introduce reforms. His attempt was resisted by the conservatives led by Queen Min. It resulted in the murder of the Queen and stirred up strong anti-Japanese feeling. In 1896 Korean King escaped from Japanese capture and sought protection and advice from Russians. Russians were granted timber and mining concessions.


2.
Two attempts at negotiation were made but ended in failure; struggle continued.

1896 June - Yamagata-Lobanov Agreement


Both to enjoy equal rights in Korea, and to withdraw their troops and press Korean govt. to carry out financial reforms. Russia violated the terms.


1898 April - Nishi-Rosen Convention


Both to recognize the independence of Korea, to assist Korea in reorganizing her army. Russia not to obstruct development of Japanese commercial and industrial interests in Korea.

B. Manchuria -

After the Triple Intervention, the penetration of Russian influence in North China caused hostility :

1895 -
a Russo-Chinese Bank was set up for Chinese Eastern Railway to be built to complete the Trans-Siberian Railway.

1898 -
a 25-year lease of Liaodong Peninsula was granted to Russia.

1900 -
Boxer Uprising gave Russia an excuse to send troops to Manchuria to protect her nationals; Russia refused to leave after the rising despite protests of China and the powers. Japan was especially concerned.


1901 -
Russia made attempts to make Manchuria into a Russian protectorate. Though all ended in failure, it aroused Japan's hostility.


Anglo-Japanese Alliance 1902 - a deciding factor for Japan's entry into war.
Reasons:
Britain -
need for ally - She was isolated in Europe with the formation of alliances (Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria and Italy, and Dual Alliance of Russia and France), She also faced naval challenge from Germany. Russia was her traditional enemy. Japan was strengthened as "Britain of the East". A Japanese ally would help her to hinder the expansion of Russia in the Far East.
Japan -
saw imminence of war with Russia; Britain was the strongest naval power and had been friendly and sympathetic to Japan for some years.

Terms of Alliance:
1.
To respect independence and integrity of China & Korea (admitting special interests of Britain in Central China & Japan in Korea).
2.
If one power went to war to maintain the status quo of the Far East, the other power would remain neutral.
3.
If a third power joined in war against one side, the other power would come to its aid.

This alliance was to last for 5 years; it soon extended in scope to the Far East, and India, and was renewed in 1905 and 1911.

Significance:
For Britain -
ended her policy of "splendid isolation" and joined in alliance.
For Japan -
brought national pride and prestige; she was now confidence in challenging Russia with British backing, without fear of intervention from a third power - probably France.


Events leading to war
Manchurian Convention between Russia and China 1901:

Russia agreed to withdraw her troops from Manchuria within three years in three stages; but she never carried out her promise. Instead, she sent in more troops.

Japan's attempt to use diplomacy 1903:

Japan suggested she would recognize Russian interests in Manchuria if Russia would recognize her political and commercial interests in Korea. Russia was only ready to recognize Japan's economic interests. She wanted both places. Czar Nicholas II of Russia wanted a war to divert attention of discontent in Russia.

Japan's breaking off diplomatic ties with Russia 1904:

Japan saw the intention of Russia and the Japanese minister left St. Petersburg after ending all diplomatic ties with Russia. Meanwhile, Admiral Togo of Japanese fleet launched a surprise raid on the Russian fleet at Port Arthur and on 10, February, war began.

The War (Feb., 1904 - Sept., 1905)
(see p. 203)



Reasons for Japanese success
1.
Enthusiasm - Japanese people were anxious for war; Russians did not want foreign war.
2.
Army and Navy - Japanese armies and navies were small but well-equipped and efficient.
Preparations for war were made, even nurses were trained. Russians armies and navies were large but badly armed, taught in old-fashioned warfare, affected by corruption.
3.
Communications - Japanese fought close to her shores; transport was easy. Russians troops needed to be transported over long distances.
4.
Anglo-Japanese Alliance helped to isolate Russians in war.

Results of the War
When U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt agrees to mediate on the request of Japan, both sides stopped fighting. Treaty of Portsmouth was worked out at New Hampshire on September, 1905.

1. Korea - Japan's paramount political, economic and military interests were recognized.

2. Manchuria - both countries agreed to evacuate troops, with exception of railway guards. Both not to interfere in the commercial and industrial development of Manchuria. Railway and mining rights of Russia were handed over to Japan.

3. Liaodong - leased to Japan; later called Quandong Leased Territory.

4. South half of Sakhalin Island ceded to Japan - in place of indemnity.

Significance
On the whole, Russian penetration of Manchuria and Korea was checked. Japan got her sphere of interest in China. It marked the emergence of Japan.
On Japan - Japan attained a great power status by defeating Russia. Britain renewed her alliance with Japan in 1905 and in 1911, and France signed a friendship treaty on equal terms with her in 1907.

The position of the military in the government was strengthened.

Japan controlled Manchuria economically.


Russia-
Russia’s defeat in the war set off the 1905 Revolution.

Russia’s defeat showed that she could not threaten British interests in the Far East, so it paved the way for an Anglo-Russian agreement in 1907.


China -
The war further weakened the Qing government which failed to stop the troops of foreigners from fighting on her soil. She had to agree to the transfer of the Russian rights in Manchuria to Japan after the war.


Asians as a whole - Japan’s victory over an European power encouraged the Asian people. It proved that Western power could be defeated if the Asians worked hard. It led to the rise of Asian nationalism.


USA -
The strength and the ambition of the Japanese alarmed the USA.




[ 本帖最后由 Imperial_Guard 于 2009-1-18 14:49 编辑 ]

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 楼主| 发表于 2009-1-18 14:45:44 | 显示全部楼层
以上是為方便大家温習近代日本發展史而設的筆記,給各位在香港以英語考世界歷史的應屆公開試考生

[ 本帖最后由 Imperial_Guard 于 2009-1-18 14:48 编辑 ]
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发表于 2009-1-18 20:54:27 | 显示全部楼层
好文!能不能翻译给我们这些英语不好的人观瞻?
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 楼主| 发表于 2009-1-18 22:11:02 | 显示全部楼层
可以,下星期我期中考試完畢後便去翻譯
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发表于 2009-1-19 08:21:24 | 显示全部楼层
多谢,期待ING.........
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发表于 2009-1-19 08:24:20 | 显示全部楼层
英语。。。
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发表于 2009-1-19 12:21:24 | 显示全部楼层
看得头大……但基本上意思了解……
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 楼主| 发表于 2009-1-31 16:29:28 | 显示全部楼层
從閉關到開放門戶
1.        自從德川幕府以來,日本一直是以來都採用閉關鎖國政策
2.        只有長琦就對荷蘭開放,在日本西部的武士都關注西方的發展並學習西學
3.        這些武士都對於他們的大名(日本封建領主)有不少影響力,所以西部的大名都希望開放門戶
4.        美國對於在日本發展有興趣,透過培里叩關恐嚇日本,逼使日本與1854年簽署神奈川條約

從封建到現代化
1.        日本雖然名義上是由天皇統治,但實際上是幕府將軍代理天皇實行管治;土  
   地則分封給各大名,而大名則透過武士維繫封國。
2.        幕府起初設立了的政治機構到後來則改變為統治所有大名的中央政府
3.        從1603年起,日本就被德川幕府管治。它採取閉關鎖國政策與及穩固的社會階級。可是,經過長年的和平,幕府變得越來越保守、貪污和缺乏效率。
4.        那些受西方影響的日本武士領袖利用美國人的到來暴露幕府的弊政和為重新確立天皇政權作準備。
5.        明治天皇在1868年重新獲得權力,並作出一連串改革使日本現代化

待續........
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 楼主| 发表于 2009-2-2 20:29:54 | 显示全部楼层
日本借用西方的技术,海关和机构。一种新的陆军和海军西方模式的基础上成立了。西方的教育系统是通过与许多学生被送到国外获得西方知识。接受了西方的生活方式和新的法律法规起草了沿西部线。日本是彻底改变在19世纪末。


方面的变化
  
有关的改革
  
积极的贡献
  
备注
  
政治
  -设立一个中央政府。
-废除封建主义
-明治宪法
日本成为一个强大的民族国家与一个有效的中央政府。
明治现代化没有改变日本变成一个民主国家。
  
社会
  -社会变迁
-教育的改革
-司法改革

改革创造了一个识字的人口具有强烈西方前景。
西化导致冲突与日本的价值观和道德伦理
  
经济
  -财政改革
-农业改革
-工业改革
改善农业的帮助,以支持工业化。日本成为工业国家在东亚。
财阀(大型金融家庭)的股票上涨,并成为在日本的政治影响力。
  
军事
  - 1873年全国征兵法
-在德国军队的改革模式
-海军改革对德国英国模式
它编写日本成为世界强国。
好战的民族主义是这反过来又促进发展为扩张主义和帝国主义侵略阴谋。
  





1889年宪法(见图表P.197 )


宪法规定,编写了伊藤博文,是建立在恢复相结合的想法,天皇是一切权力的来源,和封建的想法,真正的权力行使的皇帝,他代理。它有助于表明,日本已准备满足西方人接受其重大的政治体制。同时,它是为了满足需求,一些部族参加政府。


-
皇帝是“神圣不可侵犯”的来源和一切权力。

-
1枢密院创建作为决策集团围绕皇帝。他们的成员来自任罗(年长政治家谁参加了恢复) 。

-
内阁的职责开展政务公开。但是,个别部长内阁负责的皇帝,而不是作为一个集体负责的内阁。

-
国会由2家,这在理论上,有平等的权力。
字母i.
众议院组成同行高层成员的新贵族,被任命者的皇帝,和代表的低级别的贵族和较高的纳税人。这是一个保守的检查众议院。它可以否决法律通过了它的代表。
二。
在众议院的成员谁当选有限普选。

-
有许多检查的食物: -
一。
皇帝可以否决任何法律。
二。
的意见,他的部长们,国王有可能解散国会。
三。
当国会没有在会议上,可能问题帝国皇帝法令有同样的权利的法律,直至国会可以对它们采取行动。
四。
部长们不负责的饮食,但皇帝。

如果国会未能通过一项新的预算中,政府可能进行的预算比前一年-政府决不会没有资金。

维京群岛
皇帝是财政上独立于国会。除了收入的巨大帝国的土地,皇室被授予年度拨款三百点〇 〇万日元,这并不需要国会批准。
七。
国会有权力的宪法修正案批准的2/3s投票,但只有皇帝可以发起他们。
-
军队已在日本的特殊地位。部长们的陆军和海军已经直接进入皇帝(从而相当于总理) 。帝国条例限制了1900年任命的部长们对战争和海军上将和海军总司令服务-从而使军国主义生命和死亡的一切随后举行柜。他们可能会影响政策的总理和内阁的威胁要辞职。
“宪法实际上是一个法律上的理由为维持权力的寡头。 ” (这是表面上的民主只。 )

现代化或西化?

表面上日本的近代化是一个过程,其中包括洋务的直接借款的西方知识,思想,机构和海关。从本质上说,只有形式,是借用西方选择性。明治现代化进程的“ Japanisation ”西方的做法是根据日本的价值观和传统。

现代化的定义:

“现代”仅仅是一个相对长期,而不是一个固定的条件或时间点。 “现代化”可大致定义为“过程” ,其中一个社会取代其“机构” , “思想”和“做法” ,它认为不再合适。在19世纪末和20世纪初,现代化可能有某种狭隘的定义:在“影响深远的变化”在非西方社会已刺激或启发活动/西方国家的例子,或“适应”非西方国家的某些西方的思想和技术,以自己特有的生活方式。
一个国家的现代化可以涵盖政治,社会,经济,军事和司法的变化,例如:

政治
-颁布的宪法,成立政党。


社会
-废除封建主义,更多的社会流动性和增加新的社会阶层,实行普及教育。


经济
-实行土地税,促进工业化和贸易。


军事
-建立一个现代化的军队,海军改革的基础上最新的模式。


司法
-采用新的准则和陪审制度。
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 楼主| 发表于 2009-2-2 20:30:52 | 显示全部楼层
外部条件的日本外交-在现代化建设的成功和她的追求世界大国地位

日俄战争1904年至〇五年

基本原因
1 。
日本的胜利,抗日战争鼓励她采取更积极的政策。此外,三重干预羞辱日本,这是很正常的日本想报复。
2 。
俄罗斯和日本都有意在满洲,韩国,冲突是不可避免的。

日俄利息在满洲和韩国
俄罗斯利益

日本

  
俄罗斯正在雄心勃勃的扩大她的领土边界向东为:
1 。温水港口-的可能性,找到一个在地中海被冻结的英国,她需要得到一个来自东北亚洲,尤其。战略与北京和可提供的手段控制中。

2 。捷径的跨西伯利亚铁路,并经过人口稠密地区。

3 。经济利益-满洲矿藏丰富,韩国丰富的木材和矿产资源。

4 。延长控制韩国-防止其他权力威胁俄罗斯通信通过海路从阿瑟港气绝身亡到符拉迪沃斯托克。

日本的目标是大大提高,由于她的胜利,抗日战争。
1 。经济和战略利益-无论满洲和韩国有丰富的资源;他们还可以用作出口,她的人口;缓冲外国东扩等

2 。军事审议-她渴望帝国主义扩张,这是合乎逻辑的选择满洲和韩国。

3 。韩国-她认为这是理所当然属于她;任何权力寻求建立的控制权是反感。

  



争夺的两个领域
答:韩国-
1 。
日本的影响力已取代俄罗斯意外: -

日本文部在韩国试图进行改革。他试图抵制领导的保守党女王民。这导致谋杀女王和激起了强烈的反日情绪。于1896年逃离朝鲜国王日本捕获和寻求保护,并建议俄罗斯。被授予俄罗斯的木材和采矿特许权。


2 。
两名企图发了言,但谈判以失败告终;斗争仍在继续。

1896年6月-山形Lobanov协定


既要享有平等的权利在韩国,并撤出其部队和新闻韩国政府。进行金融改革。俄罗斯违反了条件。


1898年4月-西罗森公约


既要承认独立的韩国,以帮助韩国在改组她的军队。俄罗斯不要妨碍发展的日本商业和工业利益,在韩国。

湾满洲里-

在三重干预,渗透到俄罗斯的影响力在华北造成敌意:

1895年-
1日俄中国银行建立了中国东部铁路建设,完成跨西伯利亚铁路。

1898年-
25年的租赁辽东半岛被授予俄罗斯。

1900 -
义和团运动,使俄罗斯的借口出兵满洲,以保护她的国民;俄罗斯拒绝离开后的上升,尽管我国和抗议的权力。日本特别关注。


1901年-
俄罗斯试图使满洲里到俄罗斯的保护。虽然所有以失败而告终,这引起了日本的敌意。


英日同盟1902年-一个决定因素是日本进入战争。
原因:
英国-
需要盟友-她被孤立在欧洲联盟的形成(三联盟的德国,奥地利和意大利,双联盟的俄罗斯和法国) ,她也面临着挑战,由德国海军。俄罗斯是她的传统敌人。日本正在加强,作为“英国的东方” 。日本的盟友,将有助于她阻碍扩大俄罗斯在远东地区。
日本-
看到迫在眉睫的战争与俄罗斯,英国是最强大的海军力量,并已友好和同情日本某些年份。

条款联盟:
1 。
尊重独立和完整的中国和韩国(承认特殊利益英国在华中及日本,韩国) 。
2 。
如果一个权力发动战争是为了维持现状的远东,其他权力将保持中立。
3 。
如果三分之一力量加入战争的一方,其他权力将其援助。

这个联盟是过去5年;它很快扩大范围,远东和印度,并重新在1911年和1905年。

意义:
英国-
结束了政策的“光荣的孤立” ,并加入了联盟。
日本-
使民族自豪感和威望;她现在充满挑战的信心,俄罗斯与英国的支持,而不用担心干预从第三国-法国可能。


事件导致战争
满公约俄中两国1901年:

俄罗斯同意撤回其部队从满洲里在三年内分三个阶段进行,但她从来没有进行她的诺言。相反,她发出的更多的部队。

日本试图利用外交03年:

日本建议她承认,俄罗斯的国家利益在满洲如果俄罗斯将承认她的政治和商业利益在韩国。俄罗斯只准备承认日本的经济利益。她希望两地。沙皇尼古拉二世,俄罗斯希望战争转移注意力在俄罗斯的不满。

日本断绝外交关系,俄罗斯1904年:

日本的意图,认为俄罗斯和日本文部离开圣彼得堡结束所有外交与俄罗斯之间的关系。与此同时,多哥的日本海军舰队发起突然袭击,俄罗斯舰队在阿瑟港和10日, 2月,伊拉克战争开始。

战争( 2月, 1904年- 9月, 1905年)
(见第203页)



日本成功的原因
1 。
热情-日本人民渴望战争,俄罗斯不希望外国战争。
2 。
陆军和海军-日本军队和海军小,但装备精良和有效率的。
战争准备了,即使护士接受了培训。俄罗斯军队和海军都很大,但严重武装冲突,讲授老式战争,而受影响的腐败。
3 。
通信-日本打接近她的海岸,交通很方便。俄罗斯军队需要长距离运输。
4 。
英日同盟帮助在战争中孤立俄罗斯。

结果战争
当美国总统西奥多罗斯福同意进行调解的请求,日本,双方停止战斗。朴茨茅斯条约是工作在新罕布什尔州的9月, 1905年。

1 。韩国-日本的首要政治,经济和军事利益得到了承认。

2 。满洲里-两国同意撤出部队,除铁路警卫。既不要干涉商业和工业发展的满洲。铁路和采矿权的俄罗斯被移交给日本。

3 。辽东-出租给日本;后来Quandong租界。

4 。南库页岛的一半割让给日本-代替补偿。

意义
总体上,俄罗斯渗透满洲和韩国检查。日本让她感兴趣的领域在中国。它的出现标志着日本。
日本-日本达到了大国地位战胜俄罗斯。英国重新她同盟与日本在1905年和1911年,与法国签署了一项友好条约在平等的条件与她于1907年。

的立场,军方在该国政府加强。

日本控制的满洲国的经济。


俄罗斯
俄罗斯战败抵销1905年革命。

俄罗斯的失败表明,她不能威胁英国的利益,在远东地区,因此它铺平了道路盎格鲁俄罗斯协议于1907年。


中国-
战争进一步削弱了清政府未能阻止外国军队的战斗她土壤。她不得不同意转让的权利,俄罗斯对日本在满洲在战争结束后。


亚洲作为一个整体-日本战胜欧洲力量鼓励亚洲各国人民。事实证明,西方力量可以打败如果亚洲人努力。它导致的崛起,亚洲的民族主义。


美国-
的力量和雄心的日本震惊美国。
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