请选择 进入手机版 | 继续访问电脑版

中国拿破仑论坛

 找回密码
 入伍
新兵指南:让新兵更快熟悉论坛转载文章请注明作者/译者及出处@napolun.com邮箱自助申请
近卫军名将 - 赤胆忠心的“圣贤”德鲁奥 电影《滑铁卢》DVD-5一张钱老神作 THE CAMPAIGNS OF NAPOLEON
拿破仑所著小说《克利松与欧仁妮》波兰军团的创始者——东布罗夫斯基 路易斯-皮雷•蒙布伦和他的骑兵生涯
查看: 3894|回复: 6

[讨论] 斯托卡赫战役

[复制链接]
发表于 2010-2-27 06:58:35 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
1799年3月1日,法兰西共和国将军儒尔当率领25000法军渡过莱茵河。2日,该兵团被命名为多瑙河方面军。随后,法军向多瑙河南面运动,意图为遮护瑞士。卡尔大公率领8万奥军结束冬营,前去迎战法军。除卡尔大公率领的这8万人之外,奥军还有霍茨率领的26000人与泰罗尔地区贝勒加德率领的46000人。儒尔当分遣万达姆将军指挥部分人马延多瑙河北岸搜寻奥军,自己率军渡过多瑙河,在奥斯特拉克(Ostrach)布阵。奥斯特拉克是一块比较有利于防守的阵地,儒尔当估计奥军距离自己还有3天的行军时间,他可以利用这一时间巩固阵地,进行防御战。然而,卡尔大公指挥奥军一路急行军,在3月21日已有48000人抵达奥斯特拉克,两军在奥斯特拉克交战,奥军组成多路纵队,对法军的左,中,右进行猛烈突击,最终将法军分割为三个部分,迫使法军撤退,但奥军未能围歼法军各部,只包围俘虏了500人。战斗结束后,法军撤向斯托卡赫(Stockach),并在该地集中,意图再战。

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Stockach_%281799%29

交战序列:

法军:

General of Division Jean-Baptiste Jourdan commanding.

    Chief of Staff: General of Division Jean Augustin Ernouf
    Engineering: General of Division Armand Samuel de Marescot
    Artillery: General of Division Jean Fabre de la Martillière

Advanced Guard

General of Division François Joseph Lefebvre
    Adj. General François-Richer Drouet
    Adj. General François-Xavier Octavie Fontaine

    * Generals of Brigade Jean-de-Dieu Soult, Adolphe Édouard Casimir Joseph Mortier, Gilbert de Laval

        * 25th Demi-brigade Light Infantry (3 battalions)[5]
        * 53rd Demi Brigade Line Infantry (3 battalions)
        * 67th Demi Brigade Line Infantry (3 battalions)

    * General of Brigade Dominique Louis Antoine Klein

        * 17th Dragoon Regiment
        * 1st Chasseurs à Cheval
        * 4th Hussars (4 squadrons)
        * 5th Hussars (4 squadrons)
        * 2 Foot Artillery Batteries
        * 1 Horse Artillery Battery
        * 3rd Battalion Sappers (7th Company)

First Division

General of Division Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino

Pierre Garnier de Laboissière

    * Left Brigade: Jean-Baptiste Jacopin

        * 102nd Demi Brigade Line Infantry (3 battalions)
        * 6th Chasseurs à Cheval (4 squadrons)

    * Right Brigade: Jean Victor Tharreau

        * 10th Demi Brigade Light Infantry (3 battalions)
        * 46th Demi Brigade Line Infantry(3 battalions)
        * 11th Dragoon Regiment (4 squadrons)
        * 3 Foot Artillery Batteries
        * 1 Horse Artillery Battery
        * 3rd Battalion Sappers

Second Division

General of Division Joseph Souham

    * Left Brigade General of Brigade François Goullus

        * 83rd Demi Brigade, Line Infantry (3 battalions)
        * 7th Demi Brigade, Line Infantry (2 battalions)
        * 6th Dragoons (4 squadrons)

    * Right Brigade General of Brigade Charles Mathieu Isidore Decaen

        * 2nd Demi Brigade, Light Infantry (3 battalions)
        * 1st Dragoons (4 squadrons)
        * 2nd Foot Artillery (15th Company)
        * 7th Horse Artillery Unit (13th Company)


Third Division

General of Division Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr

    * General of Brigade Frédéric Henri Walther

        * 108th Demi Brigade, Line Infantry (3 battalions)
        * 2nd Dragoon Regiment

    * General of Brigade Claude Juste Alexandre Legrand

        * 11th Demi Brigade, Light Infantry (2 battalions)
        * 1st Demi Brigade, Line Infantry (2 battalions)
        * 8th Chasseurs à Cheval (4 squadrons)
        * 10th Chasseurs à Cheval (4 squadrons)
        * 2 Foot Artillery Units
        * 1 Horse Artillery Units

Cavalry Reserves

General of Division Jean-Joseph Ange d'Hautpoul

        * 1st Carabiniers Regiment
        * 2nd Carabiniers Regiment
        * 4th Cavalry Regiment
        * 6th Cavalry Regiment
        * 7th Cavalry Regiment
        * 8th Cavalry Regiment
        * 23rd Cavalry Regiment
        * 25th Cavalry Regiment
        * 6th Horse Artillery (5th company)
        * 7th Horse Artillery (2nd company)
        * 3rd Foot Artillery (2nd and 3rd company)
        * 3rd Battalion Sappers

Detached Flank Corps

General of Division Dominique Vandamme

        * 1st Light Infantry (2 battalions)
        * 8th Demi Brigade, light infantry (3 battalions)
        * 50th Demi Brigade, light infantry (3 battalions each)
        * 1 Squadron Dragoons
        * 1 Foot Artillery Unit
        * 8th or 10th Chasseurs a Cheval (1 squadron)

奥军:

Field Marshal Archduke Charles Commander in Chief

Advanced Guard

    * Lt. Field Marshal Friedrich Joseph, Count of Nauendorf

    Major General Maximilian, Count of Merveldt

Right Wing

Feldzeugmeister Olivier, Count of Wallis

Advanced Guard

    * Major General Merveldt

        * Freikorps (volunteers) Wurmser (12 companies)
        * 1st Hussars Kaiser (8 squadrons)
        * 1st Lancers Merveldt (8 squadrons)
        * 13th Border Infantry Regiment Wallachian Illyrian (1st Battalion)

    * Major General Joseph Kempf (commanded a portion of Petrasch's division, included in the advanced guard)

        * 1st Infantry Regiment Kaiser (3 battalions)
        * 31st Infantry Regiment Benjowsky (2 battalions)

Main Force (Right)

    * Lt. Field Marshal Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg

        * Colonel Joseph Ulm

            * 35th Infantry Regiment Wenkheim (3 battalions)

        * Major General Ludwig Vogelsang

            * 21st Infantry Regiment Gemmingen (3 battalions)
            * 42nd Infantry Regiment Erbach (2 battalions)

    * Lt. Field Marshal Franz Petrasch

        * Major General Kempf

            * Two regiments detached to advance guard
            * 49th Infantry Regiment Kerpen (2 battalions)

    * Lt. Field Marshal Augustus Christian Frederick, Duke of Anhalt-Köthen

        * Major General Andreas O'Reilly

            * 6th Light Dragoons Coburg (6 squadrons)

        * Major General Franz Roë (or Anton?)

            * 2nd Light Dragoons, Archduke Ferdinand (6 squadrons)

    * Lt. Field Marshal Johann Sigismund Riesch

        * Major General Friedrich Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

            * 9th Cuirassier Regiment Nassau-Usingen (6 squadrons)
            * 10th Cuirassier Regiment Mack (6 squadrons)

Center
Reinforced Forward Line

Lt. Field Marshal Nauendorf

            * 12th Infantry Regiment Manfredini (3 battalions)

        * Major General Ignaz Gyulay

            * 6th Border Infantry Regiment Warasdin St. George (1st Battalion)
            * 8th Border Infantry Regiment Gradiska (3rd Battalion)
            * 16th Border Infantry Regiment Siebenburg-Wallachian (1st Battalion)

        * Major General Michael von Kienmayer

            * 3rd Hussars Erzherzog Karl d'Este (8 squadrons)
            * 10th Hussars Meszaros (8 squadrons)

        * Major General Christoph Karl von Piacsek

            * Tirolean Jägers (3 companies)
            * 5th Light Battalion Radivojevich (6 companies)
            * 12th Border Hussars Croatian Slavic (6 squadrons)

    * Lt. Field Marshal Siegfried Kospoth (of the Reserve)

        * Major General Joseph Spiegelberg

            * 12th Light Dragoons Kinsky (6 squadrons)

        * Major General Friedrich Joseph Ludwig Hessen-Homburg

            * 11th Light Dragoons Latour (6 squadrons)

        * Major General Franz Ludwig Sebottendorf

            * 2nd Infantry Regiment Archduke Ferdinand (3 battalions)

Reserve

    * Lt. Field Marshal Johann Kollowrat

        * Grenadier Battalion Tegethoff (20th, 22nd, and 29th)
        * Grenadier Battalion Bojaowsky (1st 7th and 12th)
        * Grenadier Battalion Teschner (3rd, 35th and 50th)
        * Grenadier Battalion Lippe (2nd, 31st and 60th)
        * Grenadier Battalion Sebottendorf (41st, 49th and 56th)
        * Grenadier Battalion Juch (21st, 42, and 54th)

Left Wing

Lt. Field Marshal Joseph Staader

Advanced Guard

    * Major General Karl Philipp Fürst zu Schwarzenberg

        * Border Sharpshooters (4 companies)
        * 12th Light battalion Rubinitz (6 companies)
        * 2nd Lancers (6 squadrons)
        * 4th Hussar Regiment Vecsey (6 squadrons)

Main Force (Left)

    * Lt. Field Marshal Maximilien Baillet de Latour

        * Major General Anton Ulrich Mylius

            * 12th Border Infantry Regiment Banat (1st Battalion)
            * 22nd Infantry Regiment Lacy (3 battalions)
            * 7th Infantry Regiment Carl Schroeder (3 battalions)

    * Lt. Field Marshal Heinrich XV, Prince of Reuss-Plauen

        * Major General Karl Friedrich Lindenau

            * 3rd Infantry Regiment Erzherzog Karl (3 battalions)
            * 29th Infantry Regiment Oliver Wallis (3 battalions)

    * Lt. Field Marshal Nikolaus Colloredo-Mels

        * Major General Franz Seraph Rosenberg-Orsini

            * 7th Cuirassiers Lothringen (6 squadrons)
            * 8th Cuirassiers Hohenzollern (6 squadrons)

    * Lt. Field Marshal Prince Alexander Württemberg

        * Major General Johann Jacob Klinglin

            * 2nd Cuirassiers Archduke Franz d'Este (6 squadrons)
            * 11th Cuirassiers Ansbach (4 squadrons)

Detached (flanking) force

Lt. Colonel Wiedersberg

        * Tirolean Jägers (1 company)
        * 1st Border Hussars Croatian Slavic (4 squadrons)
        * 7th Light Dragoons Waldeck (2 squadrons)

交战经过:

Fought at the junction of the east-west and north-south roads on the eastern side of the Black Forest, the day-long battle at Stockach and Engen pitted the two armies against each other for the second time in seven days. The Austrians still had the numerical superiority, but this time it was closer to two-to-one, instead of almost three-to-one. Jourdan had consolidated his force over a shorter line, and had the full Army of the Danube under his direct command. Charles, likewise, had shortened his line; although Hotze had not yet caught up with the archduke, he and his 10,000 men were approaching from the Austrians' left rear.

Dispositions
For more details on this topic, see Order of battle at the Battle of Stockach (1799).

By 23 March, Jourdan had his headquarters in the vicinity of Stockach. He had recalled Barthélemy Ferino from the far right flank; Ferino had retreated along the coast of the Überlingen Lake, the northwestern finger of Lake Constance, to be in position at the close right flank, adjacent to Souham's division. Lefebvre, wounded at Ostrach, was unable to take the field himself, and Laurent Saint Cyr commanded of the left flank. When Jourdan considered his position, he felt it too extended, so he drew back further behind Stockach, toward Engen, where he could concentrate his force. The first division camped near the Hohentwiel, the 11th century fortress overlooking the marshes at the western-most point of the Lake Constance. The second division, the advanced guard, and a cavalry division were camped on the heights above Engen. The third division was camped by Leibtengen (Liptingen, the French called it), and Neuhausen. Vandamme and his small corps worked themselves discretely into a position behind the Austrian right flank. Jourdan established his headquarters at Engen.

The plan was straightforward: Vandamme and Saint Cyr would make a simultaneous attack on the Austrian right, and Soult's and Jourdan's main force would attack the Austrian center and left. Jourdan's plan, to attack four points of the opposition simultaneously, seemed to him to be the only reasonable action against a force with such numerical superiority.

The Habsburg center columns included 17,000 men under the command of field marshal Friedrich Joseph, Count of Nauendorf, formed into three columns and approaching from the north east. The main force, under the command of the Archduke Charles, included 53,000 men, also in three columns; in the main force, Charles had under his command the princes of Anhalt and Fürstenberg plus six battalions in a fourth column, north of the main column, but south of Nauendorf's command. An additional force of 13,000 troops under the command of Lieutenant Fieldmarshall Sztarry formed the southern flank.

General engagement

The general engagement on 25 March was brutal and bloody.Before daybreak, at close to 0500, Saint Cyr opened by sending his forces in a headlong attack on the Austrian right, coordinated with Souham and Ferino's assault on the Austrian left. The ferocious attack forced the Austrians out of the woods in which they had been positioned overnight, and down the road to the village of Schwandorf. Fearing that his forces would be flanked, Charles directed some reinforcements to back up General Mervelt's force on the Austrian right, six squadrons of lancers of the First Regiment. At this point, Vandamme's small corps, which had moved into position in the night of 24 March, attacked from the rear. Saint Cyr's forces had taken hold of the woods outside Stockach, named by the Austrians as the gruesome wood, with the conflict there described as "obstinate and bloody."The Archduke himself arrived with six battalions of Hungarian grenadiers and twelve squadrons of cuirassiers and led them into the fight. Both the Prince of Anhalt and Karl Aloys Fürstenberg were killed as they led their own columns into the engagement. Saint Cyr made no progress until Vandamme's assault, but both withered under the Archduke's response. In the melee, Claude Juste Alexandre Legrand, a general of brigade of Saint Cyr's III. division, lost both his brother at his side, and his aide-de-camp, and Jourdan himself had barely escaped being trampled to death or captured, as he tried to rally his own troops. The main assault on the Austrian center was stalled by the superior numbers.

At the French right flank, General Ferino attempted to push the Austrians back, first with a cannonade, followed by an attack through the woods on both sides of the road between Asch and Stockach. Two columns made two attacks, both of which were repulsed; finally, Ferino added his third column to the assault, which resulted in the Austrian reformation of the line, cannons at the center firing a heavy cannonade. Ferino could not respond because he had run out of artillery ammunition. The French fixed bayonets and charged the village of Wahlwies, successfully taking it, but they were unable to hold it in the night, and subsequently fell back.

Withdrawal

On the evening of 26 March, Jourdan arranged for the abandonment of the positions in Engen and Stockach. Saint Cyr had already withdrawn along the Danube, after his and Vandamme's assaults on the Austrian right failed, and was working his way west toward the Black Forest. Inexplicably, at least at the time, the Austrians failed to pursue the retreating French; instead of pursuing the French, Charles ordered his army into cantonments at Stockach and Engen, as far south as Wahlweiss. The Aulic Council, in establishing a plan of battle, had forbidden his approach to the Rhine until Switzerland was also cleared of the French army; Charles simply held his ground.

By 31 March, the Army of the Danube established itself in Neustadt, Freiburg im Breisgau, Freudenstadt and Schiltach. Jourdan set up his command headquarters at Hornberg. The cavalry could not find enough forage in the mountains, and were sent to Offenberg.

[ 本帖最后由 朔风 于 2010-2-27 07:01 编辑 ]
回复

使用道具 举报

 楼主| 发表于 2010-2-27 07:59:03 | 显示全部楼层
结果:

法军:400人死亡,1600人负伤,2000人被俘,损失1门火炮
奥军:500人死亡,2400人负伤,2900人被俘,损失2门火炮与两名将军

总评:

斯托卡赫战役,法军在兵力不足的形势下仍然敢于挑选有利时机与地形,主动进攻,体现了较高的自信心与勇气。从战役过程来看,法军在各个方向都不具备兵力优势的情况下,一度使奥军处于困境,并给奥军造成较大伤亡。在奥军利用兵力优势逐渐反客为主之后,法军仍能在一定程度上顶住奥军的猛烈攻势,有组织的撤退。这一系列战绩体现了当时法军较高的战术素养。奥军在遭到突袭之后没有慌乱,保持秩序进行反击,对比革命战争初期的表现已大有进步。这得益于卡尔大公富有灵感与魅力的个人领导才能。就像后来在阿斯佩恩战役中那样,卡尔大公下马后亲自率领掷弹兵冲锋,以个人榜样阻止了军队溃乱,维护了阵线的稳定。奥军总体表现出色,而骑兵表现尤为优秀,尤其是第9与第10胸甲骑兵团。这两个团在战场上所向披靡,击溃许多法军骑兵与步兵部队。

对法军战术决策的看法:

儒尔当挑选有利时机,利用万达姆部正好处于奥军右后方的机会,意图在兵力一比二的劣势下进行决战,可以说是勇气可嘉。他的想法是不错的,但是在战术部署上,我认为他做的还有所不足。当然,我不并是说我这个安静的待在屋子里打字的人,在混乱的战场上可以做的比他更好。我只是希望尽量客观的从旁观者角度分析一下导致法军失败的战术决策。奥军对法军是二比一的兵力优势,在这种情况下,儒尔当要想打进攻战,尤其是进攻奥军的一翼,那么就应当集中优势兵力对这一翼进行突击。但是实际上,他却没有这么做。按照他的部署,左翼的第3师负责与万达姆部协同突击奥军右翼,中央的前卫军负责正面进攻,右翼的第1师与第2师负责进攻奥军左翼。这一部署似乎本末倒置了。因为我认为儒尔当手中最大一张牌恰恰是人数最少的万达姆部,因为该部处于奥军侧后,虽然兵力较少,但拥有突然性优势。因此,儒尔当应当聚焦奥军右翼,把优势兵力部署到法军左翼。从战役进程上看,负责进攻奥军右翼的只有法军1个步兵师加8个营的步兵,却给奥军造成了很大困难。相反,负责进攻奥军左翼的有两个步兵师,但因奥军大量增援而无法取得突破。儒尔当的计划可能是在正面从多个地点同时进攻,再配合万达姆部的迂回,会迅速迫使奥军溃退。他似乎低估了奥军的兵力优势以及卡尔大公对奥军士兵的影响。

我承认,法军已处于兵力劣势,削弱右翼增援左翼无疑是十分冒险的,但同样能带来更大的胜机。假设儒尔当把索汉将军的第2师移至左翼,同时把右翼第1师收缩进行防御,我认为法军是很可能取得大胜的。事实情况,圣西尔将军在3月25日凌晨5点配合万达姆部对奥军右翼发起的突袭取得了绝对成功,一气俘虏了近3000奥军。但是卡尔大公及时率领部队增援,圣西尔兵力不足以贯穿奥军右翼。那么假如当时左翼再多一个步兵师,情况又会如何?我认为考虑当时法军的战斗力与战术素养都超过奥军,如果索汉将军能与圣西尔将军一同突击奥军右翼,成功的可能性是很大的。再来谈谈中央。负责中央的是苏尔特将军指挥的前卫军(前卫军司令勒费布尔因在奥斯特拉克受伤而无法指挥),起初苏尔特的突击取得了不小进展,但随后又被奥军的增援兵力击退,双方展开拉锯战,最终奥军集中压倒性兵力猛攻苏尔特军,一度将其击溃,迫使儒尔当亲自指挥预备队进行反击来为苏尔特争取撤退时间(儒尔当本人差点在这次反击中身亡),但却被奥军两个胸甲骑兵团横扫。如果儒尔当不把右翼的第1师展开的那么远,而是再向中央靠拢一些,苏尔特的处境就不会那么糟糕,因为法军这两支部队可以互相增援。

在战术方面,法军没有良好的协同骑兵,炮兵与步兵,这似乎也是总司令儒尔当将军的责任。师长们的任务是指挥步兵进攻,而总司令的责任是用骑兵和炮兵预备队在关键地点协同进攻。圣西尔将军的进攻几乎没有得到骑兵支援,这导致他在突袭得手后无法进一步扩大优势,而后来卡尔大公带来了两个胸甲骑兵团增援,迫使第3师转攻为守,使得奥军成功的反客为主。而且,当法军左翼取得进展后,法军司令部应当立即派遣强大的炮兵预备队,进一步扩大优势,把奥军右翼打穿。奥普尔将军的骑兵预备队直到很晚才出动,掩护前卫军的重组,结果被优势的奥军骑兵击溃,可以说法军骑兵出动的太晚了。若能早些增援左翼,那么奥军右翼崩溃的可能性必然进一步增大,炮兵也是同理。

本次战役,法军步兵表现出色,奥军骑兵表现出色。主将方面,卡尔大公完胜儒尔当。副将方面,法方则完胜奥方。万达姆将军以区区1个步兵团,6个骑兵中队与3-4门炮的兵力完美的切入奥军右后方,面对卡尔大公以压倒性兵力打的反突击,万达姆部竟还能以很小伤亡带着1200俘虏全身而退,与第3师汇合,可算是一大胜绩。http://books.google.com/books?id=u_WvcSLuvtwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=dominique+vandamme&hl=fr&cd=3#v=onepage&q=stockach&f=false
圣西尔将军在左翼的突袭取得成功,后来苏尔特军后撤,圣西尔师被奥军团团包围,弹药几乎打光,处于Tuttlingen的弹药补给也丢了,在这种情况下,圣西尔以冷静的头脑组织撤退,利用夜晚溜出奥军包围圈,以较小的伤亡撤出战场。
http://books.google.com/books?id=9t57rnTLesAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=vie+de+marechal+st+cyr&hl=fr&cd=1#v=onepage&q=stockach&f=false
由于儒尔当部署不当,圣西尔师被围,一旦奥军歼灭该部,那么法军中央与右翼便很难保全。后来苏尔特写道:“幸运的是,这个大胆的计划是交给将军中最懂得用谨慎去避免危险的人来完成。”
苏尔特指挥前卫军,在被奥军人海战术击溃之后, 他在较短时间内迅速收拢溃兵,保持秩序。后来儒尔当落马,奥普尔将军的骑兵在混战中不敌奥军,苏尔特指挥前卫军余部以齐整的阵型挡住了奥军骑兵,为法军骑兵的重组赢得时间,避免了法军中央的溃败。
右翼的费力诺将军与索汉将军以弱攻强,虽未能取得太大进展,但仍然牵制了奥军大量兵力。后来,奥军调遣大军猛攻法军右翼,但第1师与第2师在弹药打光的情况下装上刺刀,坚守至黑夜,而后全身而退。
法军虽然全线撤退,但仍然保持着秩序,卡尔大公并未进行有力追击。这可能是由于其军士已鏖战一日,尤其是骑兵,都已经比较疲惫。后来,参与这场战役的四个将军都成了元帅,他们是儒尔当,勒费弗尔,苏尔特与圣西尔。
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

发表于 2010-2-27 21:26:42 | 显示全部楼层
赞同这个分析。儒尔当主动进攻大胆,但部署上还是有些趋于保守,左中右兵力太平均。
可以靠两面夹击,最有望形成突破的左翼15营2个半骑兵团;同时右翼14营4个骑兵团,中央9营4个骑兵团(可能还有奥普尔?),主次不分明。奥军方面卡尔大公有6营精锐匈牙利掷弹营等预备队,可以应急。抗过法军的三板斧,奥军的数量优势就显出来了。
儒尔当讲法军的给养缺乏,大概是实情。Ferino攻上阵地,竟然没炮弹还击敌军火力。他估计也是担忧某一路兵太削弱会顶不住多久。
法军兵力严重劣势,缺粮少弹,让敌军付出多50%损失,打出这个结果实为虽败尤荣。

儒尔当回去后讲败因时除了兵力、供应不足外,也讲自己部队经验不及对方。无论如何,法军的将阵容还是够强的。
旅长里包括未来的元帅苏尔特,莫蒂埃,名将德凯恩、瓦尔特、勒格朗、克莱恩
6个师长包括:未来的元帅勒费弗尔、圣西尔,名将索汉、旺达姆、奥普尔,还有30年军龄的宿将Ferino。
加上主帅儒尔当,有5个帝国元帅。

[ 本帖最后由 iron duke 于 2010-2-27 21:44 编辑 ]
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

 楼主| 发表于 2010-2-28 01:49:34 | 显示全部楼层
忘算了莫蒂埃...

这场战役法军骑兵表现的比较糟糕,尽管有奥普尔和克莱恩这样的猛将,但没有重骑兵似乎使法军吃了大亏。奥普尔指挥的那个骑兵预备队序列如下:
  * 1st Carabiniers Regiment
        * 2nd Carabiniers Regiment
        * 4th Cavalry Regiment
        * 6th Cavalry Regiment
        * 7th Cavalry Regiment
        * 8th Cavalry Regiment
        * 23rd Cavalry Regiment
        * 25th Cavalry Regiment
两个卡宾枪骑兵团似乎当时还未装备胸甲(1809年才装备上?),且人数可能只有4个中队。至于其余那几个骑兵团,似乎也是不穿甲的阵列骑兵。反观奥军,有34个中队的胸甲骑兵,在冲击力方面已占有很大优势。
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

发表于 2010-2-28 21:11:06 | 显示全部楼层
勉强看懂前面的那一部分,卡尔大公好强,他应该是革命战争中法军最厉害的对手。
对了 似乎这次战役后奥普尔背了黑锅?
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

 楼主| 发表于 2010-3-1 01:06:02 | 显示全部楼层
原帖由 高守业 于 2010-2-28 21:11 发表
勉强看懂前面的那一部分,卡尔大公好强,他应该是革命战争中法军最厉害的对手。
对了 似乎这次战役后奥普尔背了黑锅?


是的。儒尔当将骑兵冲锋的失败怪罪到奥普尔头上,但斯特拉斯堡的军事法庭最后判他无罪。
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Joseph_Ange_d%27Hautpoul
从战役进程上看,负责中央的苏尔特在撤退至利普廷根平原后,受到奥军骑兵威胁,于是儒尔当让奥普尔的骑兵预备队冲上去顶住奥军。但根据儒尔当的说法,奥普尔的骑兵去晚了,而且没有集中突击奥军,被奥军胸甲骑兵各个击破。不过需要注意,儒尔当本人正是在这次骑兵反击中落马的(差点被俘),因此这次骑兵反击实际上是儒尔当指挥的。要说指挥方面的责任,那么我觉得至少是儒尔当和奥普尔都有责任,或者儒尔当责任更大,因为骑兵预备队在他直接指挥下,何时冲锋怎么冲锋都由他说了算,冲晚了或者没形成重拳很难怪到奥普尔头上。

[ 本帖最后由 朔风 于 2010-3-1 01:13 编辑 ]
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

发表于 2010-3-1 11:51:00 | 显示全部楼层
拜读之后,没能有什么大的意见

觉得在那样缺少补给的条件下 法军还能进行进攻,没有高昂的士气是不行的,法军善攻的习惯就在那个时候培养起来的吧,还是要说一句 虽败犹荣。

同意iron duke的意见 觉得兵力布置太平均了 不能形成局部突破
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 入伍

本版积分规则

小黑屋|手机版|Archiver|中国拿破仑 ( 京ICP备05046168号 )

GMT+8, 2019-7-20 03:48 , Processed in 0.149350 second(s), 16 queries .

Powered by Discuz! X3.2

© 2001-2013 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表