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《拿破仑三世》中的《八里桥之战》

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发表于 2013-2-14 10:14:59 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
http://www.archive.org/stream/napoleoniiiathei00imbeiala#page/272

At a distance of five kilometres beyond the bivouacs the allies had occupied at Chang-Kia is the city of Tung-chau, connected wit Pekin by a road twelve kilometres in length, bulit by former dynasties. At the village of Palikao this road crosses the canal which unites Pei-Ho to the capital by means of solid stone bridge with lagre arches. Beyond and behind this bridge, on ground long studied and made ready in advance, the Chinese generalissimo had disposed his troops, amounting apparently to between fifty and sixty thousand men.

联军占领了在超出宿营地距离五公里远的通州城市张家湾,通过一条又前代所建,长十二公里的道路与北京连接。在八里桥村,这条路依靠坚固的带有大拱券的石桥横跨与海河汇流的运河通往首都。在这座桥的前后地界上,长期研究且提前准备的中国统帅已经布署了他的部队,总数显然在五万人到六万人之间。

The French had at their disposal five thousand bayonets, some escorting cavalry, and a very little artillery. The English had about the same number of effective men, rather fewer foot-soldiers, but more cavalry. Such was the little phalanx which, but for the superiority of its armament and the perfection of its fire, could not have maintained a struggle so unequal in point of numbers.

法国人排列出了五千把刺刀、一些护卫的骑兵,和微乎其微的炮兵部队。英国人有大约相同数目的兵额,但是步兵少,骑兵多。如此小的方阵,要不是其武器装备的优势和其火力的改善,从数量上看是不能够维持一场战斗的。

September 21, at half-past five in the morning, the allied troops left their bivouaes at Chang-Kia, and marched in the direction of Palikao to attack the Tartar army. A small column under command of General Collineau took the lead, General Jamin  followed the movement. General de Montauban and his staff marched at the French right. Next came the English.

9月21日,早晨五点半,联军离开他们在通州的营地,行军八里桥方向去攻击鞑靼军队。科利诺将军指挥的一支小纵队带头,雅曼将军跟随移动。德·蒙托邦将军和他的参谋在法军右翼行军。接下来是英国人。

The plan of the battle was this: The French were to attack the Palikao bride, while the English, spreading out to the left, should try to find their way to a wooden bride three kilometres above the stone one, cross it, turn back, and take the enemy in the rear.

攻击计划是这样的:法国人将攻击八里桥,而英国人,向左铺展开,应当试图找到离石桥三公里元的木桥,跨过去,掉头,在背后拿下敌人。

Fighting began at seven in the morning. When they got within four kilometres of the stone bridge, the French saw the enormous mass of Tartar cavalry, forming an immense curve, coming toward them at a jog-trot. Not a word of command was heard in its ranks. Tartar evolutions are indicated by flags which are lowered, like marine signals. The advance squadrons come up at a trot to within fifty yards of the French tirailleurs, who rout the first rank of cavalry. If a single battalion were broken through, the allied army would at once be surrounded on all sides. But the Chinese generalissimo makes his cavalry charge in a body, and unsuccessfully. In the centre, the charge, several times renewed with savage yells, is repelled by the rocket-gunners, a battery of the 12th, and the light infantry. On the left, it is broken by General Collineau's little command, and driven back by the English cavalry, which has just entered the field of battle. On the right, it is repelled by the 101st of the line, skilfully drawn up and handled with coolness by its commander, Colonel Pouget. Taken on the oblique by the artillery of Colonel de Bentzmann, the Tartar cavalry commences to retreat.

战斗开始于早晨七点。当他们距石桥不到四公里时,法国人看到大堆大堆的鞑靼骑兵,形成一个巨大的曲线,向他们缓步而来。在队列中听不到一个字的命令。鞑靼人变阵是通过旗帜的降低来表示,就像海事信号。先遣中队在离法国散兵五十码的距离内快步上前,散兵们击溃了骑兵的第一列。如果任意一营被击破,联军将被同时被四面包围。但是中国统帅让他的骑兵冲击主阵地,失败。在中央,带着野蛮叫喊的数次反复冲击,都被第十二炮兵连的火箭炮兵和轻步兵击退。在左翼,冲击为科利诺将军小部队所破,并被刚刚抵达战场的英国骑兵驱回。在右翼,冲击被第101线步兵击退,在它的指挥官,布杰上校的巧妙地制定和冷静处理之下。Bentzmann上校的炮兵部队占领斜坡,鞑靼骑兵开始撤退。        

Seeing that his troops had come out victorious from the circle which threatened them, and having no more fears for the position of his left, now that the English army had arrived, General de Montauban sent for General Collineau's little corps and ordered it to outflank the village of Palikao by a wheel to the right, gaining the bank of the canal, while General Jamin was attacking the village in front. It was taken in spite of the sharp resistance of the Chinese infantry, which defended it inch by inch, but in vain, on account of the inferiority of their equipment.

鉴于他的部队已经从威胁着他们的包围中显露出胜利,并且对他的左翼阵地没有更多的担心,现在英军已经抵达,德·蒙托邦将军派出小部队给科利诺将军,并责令其迅速右转包抄八里桥村,占领运河河岸,当时雅曼将军正在攻击村子的前方。尽管中国步兵顽强抵抗,村子还是被拿下了,他们一英寸接一英寸的保卫着村子,但考虑到他们的劣势装备,这是徒劳的。

The taking of the village did not end the fight. The next thing was to seize the Palikao bridge, the principal object of the
battle. While General Collineau, arriving on the bank, takes the bridge on the oblique with his artillery, the commander-in-chief orders Colonel de Bentzmann to send forward the rocket-gunners and the 12th battery to sweep it with a raking fire, and aim at the gunners serving the ten cannon by which it was defended. Fortunately for the French, the chinese had very defective artillery, and their balls went over the heads of the assailants.

村子的夺取并没有结束战斗。接下来的事情是抢占八里桥,这场战斗的主要目的。正当科利诺将军到达河岸,在斜坡上用他的炮兵部队夺取桥梁时,统帅命令德· Bentzmann上校派遣火箭炮炮兵和第十二炮兵连扫射,并瞄准操作十门保卫桥梁的加农炮炮手。对法国人幸运的是,中国人的炮兵部队很有问题,他们的炮弹飞过了攻击者的头顶。

The conduct of the Chinese leaders was none the less worthy of great praise. On the causeway of the bridge, their gorgeous costumes making them splendid targets for death, they wave their standards and reply in the open by an ineffective fire to that of the French musketry and cannon. It is the elite of the army which immolates itself to protect a precipitate retreat. The gunners serving the ten cannon let themselves be killed at their post by the infantry of the 2d battalion. The fight is won. General Collineau crosses the bride and enters the road to Pekin on the right, in the direction taken by the fugitives. The commander-in-chief follows with the remainder of his troops. It is noonday. Fighting has been going on five consecutive hours.

中国领导人的指挥依然值得给予高度的赞赏。在桥的堤道上,他们的华服使他们成为灿烂的死亡目标,他们挥舞着他们的旗帜,在明处以无效的火力回敬法国人的步枪和大炮。这是部队的精锐以牺牲他们自己来掩护仓促的撤退。 操作十门加农炮的炮手在他们自己的岗位上被第二营的步兵杀死。战斗获胜了。科利诺将军跨过桥,进入右边通往北京的道路,从逃亡者获得的方向。统帅同他的其余部队跟随。现在是正午。战斗已经持续了五个小时。

Justly proud of his subordinates, especially of his son, a future general, decorated on the battle-field in the Crimea six years before, who had now been fighting bravely, the victor was radiant with joy. Let us again quote M. d'Herisson, whose Journal d'un Interprete en Chine is so vivid a description of this almost incredible expedition: "Montauban, surrounded by all his officers and greeted by the acclamations of his soldiers, passed in front of the lines, wiping his forehead. his soldierly and severe countenance was lighted by an honest smile of satisfaction. Was he fancying that under the glowing sun of victory he saw Renown coming through the air to bring him military honors, the medal of the soldier and commander-in-chief, the grand cross of the Legion of Honor, a seat in the Senate, and that title of Chinese count which resembled the surnames given by the Romans to their victorious generals? I cannot say. But certainly he did not forebode, nor did any of us forebode, all the calumnies, the mean and contemptible jealousies by which he would be assailed on his return home, and that incredible ingratitude of a parliament which did not even recall his victories until the country was beyond saving."

有理由为他的下属骄傲,尤其是他的儿子,一位未来的将军,在六年前的克里米亚战场上被授予过奖章,他现在已经奋战,这位胜利者正喜行于色。让我们再次引用M. D'埃里松的《 Journal d'un Interprete en Chine》,是如此生动的描述,这场几乎是令人难以置信的远征:“蒙托邦在所有他的军官所簇拥下,和他的士兵的欢呼迎接中,通过前线,擦拭着他额头,他那军人的、严峻的脸面容显露出最真诚满意的笑容。他是否在幻想着,在胜利的光芒四射的太阳下,他看到声名穿越空气带给他军事荣誉,士兵和统帅的勋章,荣誉军团的大十字,参议院的席位,以及中国伯爵的头衔,就好像罗马人给予他们的常胜将军姓氏?我无法肯定。 但可以肯定的是,他没有预感到,我们也一点都没预感到,当他回国后,他将被所有的诽谤,下贱卑鄙的阴谋攻击,而且议会令人难以置信的忘恩负义,甚至没有回想起他的胜利,直到国家无可救药。”

The results of the battle of Palikao bordered on the miraculous. While the enemy had more than twelve hundred men disabled. the French had but three killed and eighteen wounded, and the English two killed and twenty-nine wounded. A large number of cannon, a stack of bows, arrows, quivers, thousands of matchlocks, a lot of banners, among others the grand imperial banner of Sang-Ko-Lin-Sin, fell into the hands of victors. That night they slept under the abandoned tents of the vanquished, twelve kilometres from Pekin.

八里桥之战的结果近乎奇迹。虽然敌人有超过一万两千人伤亡。但法国人只有三人被杀和十八人受伤,而因国人两人被杀和二十九人受伤。大量的火炮、成堆的弓、箭、箭筒,数千火绳枪,许多的旗帜,其中有僧格林沁的大皇帝旗,落入胜者之手。夜晚,他们睡在被战败者遗弃的营帐内,距离北京十二公里。

Wonder has been expressed because the allied armies did not profit by their success to advance at once to the ramparts of the capital. The reason is that the hasty marches of the last few days and the two battles of Chang-Kia and Palikao had nearly exhausted their food and ammunition. The French infantry had no cartridges left, and the artillery only cannon-shot enough for forty-seven discharges a-piece. The provisions were nearly gone. The English were in a similar condition. The commanding generals deemed it imprudent to present themselves yet before a city of two million inhabitants. They decided to summon all their forces and to remain in their encampment at Palikao until they had received all that Tien-Tsin could furnish in men, munitions, and provision. The halt was to last from September 22 until October 5.

奇迹已经体现,因为联军并没有得益于他们的成功立刻推进到首都的壁垒。原因是最后几天的贸然行军以及张家湾和八里桥两场战斗已经几乎耗尽了他们的食物和弹药。法国步兵已经没有子弹剩余,而炮兵部队每门炮只有足够射击四十七次的炮弹。储备物资几乎耗尽。英国人处于类似的状况。统帅将军们认为他们还需谨慎地出现在两百万人口的城市面前。他们决定召集所有他们的部队并继续留在他们在八里桥的营地,直到他们收到了所有天津提供的人,弹药和储备物资。停顿从9月22日持续
至10月5日。

Baron Gross and Lord Elgin each received a Chinese despatch September 24. It was from Prince Kung, younger borther of the Emperor. The prince announced that Tsai and Meh had been dismissed for misnangement of affairs, and that he, a prince of the blood, had been appointed imperial commissioner with the amplest powers to treat and conclude a peace. Hence he asked the two ambassadors to put an end to hostilities, but mentioned  neither the events of the day nor the prisoners of Tung-Chau, who had just been transferred to Pekin. Baron Gros and Lord Elgin replied that before suspending hostilities or entering into a parley, the prisoners must be returned to their respective camps. Prince Kun having declined to deliver them except as a consequence of the conclusion of peace, the two ambassadors put matters into the hands of the commanding genersls, wh o decided that the allied troops should resume their forward march on October 5.

  9月24日,格罗斯男爵和额尔金大人均收到一份中方急件。急件来自恭亲王,皇帝的弟弟。亲王宣布载垣和穆荫因处置不当被撤职,而他,血亲亲王,已经被委任为钦差大臣,有足够的权力来讨论和缔结和平。因此他要求两位大使结束敌对行动,但既没有提及白天的事件,也没有提及已经刚被转移到北京的通州俘虏。格罗斯男爵和额尔金大人回复,暂停敌对行动之前,或者进入和谈前,俘虏必须返回他们各自的阵营。恭亲王已经拒绝提供除了缔结和平之外的结果,两位大使把问题交到统帅将军们手中,他们决定联军部队应当在10月5日回复前进的步伐。
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发表于 2013-2-16 06:19:08 | 显示全部楼层
Lord在这个场合下翻译为勋爵较佳。Lord是对男爵、子爵、伯爵、侯爵的敬称。
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-2-16 09:32:51 | 显示全部楼层
Lord_Clive 发表于 2013-2-16 06:19
Lord在这个场合下翻译为勋爵较佳。Lord是对男爵、子爵、伯爵、侯爵的敬称。

好的,学习了
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