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[整理] 【预填坑】圣西尔(元帅)加泰罗尼亚战绩

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发表于 2015-1-3 22:53:41 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
最近几个月一直忙各种事,好久没在论坛干点实事了,再挖一坑,过两天寒假的时候抽时间填坑,先挖好。。


为什么选这个题呢,首先圣西尔对于挽救1808-1809法军在加泰罗尼亚战局发挥了及其重要的作用,遗憾的是目前对这一段历史网络上鲜有详文,维基百科和凯旋门都是一带而过,大家有所耳闻的多半是在赫伦纳围城战不利时赌气撇下军队一走了之。本文以Oman的大部头为主线,穿插一些其他的材料,为大家较为详细的分析整个过程的来龙去脉

另,圣西尔在1812征俄才最终封帅,为了和其他的圣西尔区分,姑且称之为元帅吧。另外此人出了名的难缠,别人不容易和他搞好关系(包括皇帝)。还著有回忆性质的加泰罗尼亚战记一书,但可能内容多为自己洗白,姑且不用(其实是因为我看不懂法语)


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发表于 2015-1-5 22:55:46 | 显示全部楼层
有个流传很久的说法,元帅中少有能够指挥一个军以上的(可能还会补充说马塞纳、达武例外)
这话当然不对,典型反例就是1812年的大军团左翼,圣西尔在第一次波洛茨克成功指挥两个军击退维特根施泰因,后期同样是连战连退,却总算保留了足够用于别列津纳河的部队,从这个角度来讲,他的指挥能力还是可圈可点的
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 楼主| 发表于 2015-1-6 16:57:58 | 显示全部楼层
装甲掷弹熊 发表于 2015-1-5 22:55
有个流传很久的说法,元帅中少有能够指挥一个军以上的(可能还会补充说马塞纳、达武例外)
这话当然不对, ...

嗯,但从我目前掌握的资料看当圣西尔的搭档真是个难事,包括在加泰罗尼亚的奥热罗,维迪尔,还有在1812的乌迪诺等人,都和圣西尔合不来
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发表于 2015-1-7 11:39:38 | 显示全部楼层
Abercomby 发表于 2015-1-6 16:57
嗯,但从我目前掌握的资料看当圣西尔的搭档真是个难事,包括在加泰罗尼亚的奥热罗,维迪尔,还有在1812的 ...

幸好第一次波洛茨克会战乌迪诺直接受伤下场了……
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发表于 2015-1-8 19:56:39 | 显示全部楼层
忘了再哪里看的了,说圣西尔对部下特别苛刻,然后拿破仑也不怎么待见他……
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发表于 2015-1-8 21:26:30 | 显示全部楼层
可以翻翻钱德勒主编的《拿破仑的元帅们》,古维翁·圣西尔的小传最独特的一点就是,前面用了相当的篇幅来描述与分析家庭情况对圣西尔造成的心理创伤及其长远影响。

After the birth of a third child in 1767,possibly the most significant event in St.- Cyr’s life took place: his mother left home, never to return. She appears to have traveled to Lyons, although this is not certain, where she joined the semi- mystic sect of the Martinistes, an offshoot of freemasonry. St.- Cyr was to retain throughout his life a deep hatred of freemasonry.2  She took the name of St.- Cyr in place of Gouvion. Deprived of a mother at the age of four, and soon losing both brothers, St.- Cyr s childhood was far from happy. His close friend and biographer of later life, Augustin Cournot, tells how this resulted in a very strong individualism, which even as a child distinguished him from his contemporaries.3  It left him unsociable and with an air of melancholy. This early depth and power of character and willpower can be judged by his opposition to entering his fathers trade. Despite intense pressure from his father, often involving physical violence, St.- Cyr retained an intense disgust for tanning and butchery. He educated himself to a sufficient level to gain admission as a “free listener” to the artillery school of Toul.


我刚刚看完富坚义博的外星灵异漫画《Level E》,所以对圣西尔母亲的别去有种奇特的、很空灵的想象

回到正题,以上引文的大意就是,圣西尔的母亲在他3岁时离家出走,似乎是去了里昂加入某个共济会分支,而他的两个兄弟也早早夭折了——这给年幼的圣西尔造成极大痛苦,他终生痛恨共济会,并且为自己的姓名加上了母亲改用的姓“圣西尔”。他的密友奥古斯丁·古诺,也是他的传记作者,讲述道,圣西尔和拿破仑很像,从小孤僻忧郁,异于常人,但他是因为家庭变故。这种强烈的个人主义也表现在他拒绝子承父业上,由于经常被父亲暴打,他对制革业和屠宰业也有深刻的仇恨。

St.- Cyr had less than happy relations with his commanders. His general coolness and habit of speaking with a tone of total authority at briefings had the effect of irritating his seniors; and because of this, throughout his career, St.- Cyrs advice and sug-gestions were often rejected. The bitter attitude on which con-temporaries so often commented was fostered when his projections too often proved correct.


再列举一条:他在作战指示中的冷淡与权威口吻让其他指挥官很不满,所以他的建议和命令经常被拒绝。当他的建议是正确的时候,尤为招人怨恨。
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发表于 2015-1-8 21:57:16 | 显示全部楼层
事实上,童年在心理学上有极其重要的地位,圣西尔不好相处不能全怪他,就像拿破仑少年时代那样,有果必有因,是很正常的。

St. Cyr’s recent biographer, Christiane d’Ainvil,feels that, although he hardly ever talked or wrote about his mother, this "silent suffering explains the complexity of his character, at one and the same time strong and vulnerable, authoritative and sensitive*”4  It also left him throughout life utterly lacking a gracious self- irony. He was always deeply hurt by even humorous attacks on himself. He could laugh at a joke at another's expense, but never one at his own. Having developed the ability for being totally self-reliant, St.- Cyr found it almost impossible to operate in the normal social sphere. d’Ainvil describes him as a “modern Stoic.”


圣西尔极敏感又“专制”,不善于自嘲,为人冷淡,容易被他人的善意玩笑冒犯,相当自我,简直是个“当代斯多葛派”

当然,圣西尔有不错的知识修养,他靠自学成为了图尔军校的免费旁听生,这对他可能有一定的弥补作用。圣西尔和德赛、奈伊、达武交情很好,而后两者也是不太受同僚欢迎的人。

On December 17, 1799, St.- Cyr was ordered back to the Army of the Rhine now under Moreau. Sadly, as ever, St.- Cyrs attitude soon drew Moreau's displeasure, and it is here that the legend of St.- Cyr as a "bad bed-fellow” began. Despite a total lack of evidence, Moreau accused St.- Cyr in his reports of failing to support his brother generals, and Bonaparte was later to use these accusations when he and St.- Cyr came into conflict. Yet, at this time, both Ney and General Baraguey d’Hilliers wrote numerous letters to St.- Cyr thanking him for his support in the field.1 6  


1799年12月17日,圣西尔回到莫罗指挥的莱茵军团,很快招惹莫罗的不满,于是他的“坏同僚”名声就开始传播了,莫罗没有充分证据就指责圣西尔没有支援友军,而拿破仑日后也会拿这个吵架。但,奈伊和蒂利耶将军写了很多信感谢他的支援——看来圣西尔真有点冤枉了。拿破仑和圣西尔的关系在1812年的某次会议后改善,前者似乎被他的个人品质迷住了,后者在回忆录的1812年至1813年部分更加倾向于赞美拿破仑。

除此之外,圣西尔精于计算,善于保存部队,虽然他把军队视为工具,并不想改善关系,但士兵们还是信任并尊敬他(当然不是喜爱他)。好像在某处还看到,圣西尔倾向于把事情交给部下料理,但万一需要,他还是会亲自出手的。
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发表于 2015-1-8 21:57:54 | 显示全部楼层
至于他和乌迪诺在第一次波洛茨克之战中的糟糕合作,乌迪诺也有责任,他自己本身就毫不掩饰对圣西尔的厌恶。
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