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[翻译] 英国轻步兵条令中文概述

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发表于 2018-7-19 01:40:49 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 灭火小太阳 于 2018-7-21 21:56 编辑

Light Infantry Exercise: As Ordered in His Majesty's Regulations for the Movement of the Troops. Printed for the War-Office, by T. Egerton, at the Military Library, near Whitehall, 1797.
Placed on the Napoleon Series: January 2003.(内容上与二爷发的1792(93)年的轻步兵操典内容大致相同)
本身历史,英文,军语水平均严重不足,因此对这部分内容完全达不到翻译的标准,仅仅是用中文大概解释了一遍。原来打算发知乎的,但是略修之后发现依然存在很多难解或者误解的地方,因此先在论坛存档,同时烦请前辈们进行勘误。
感谢圣骑士团大团长的初步英文校对(把小半内容重翻了一遍),但是出于减少工作量考虑,仅排查明显译错部分,错别字和不当语序都是本人的锅。
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-7-19 01:41:22 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 灭火小太阳 于 2018-7-21 21:55 编辑

Light Infantry Exercise: As Ordered in His Majesty'sRegulations for the Movement of the Troops.
Editor's Note: This document wasoriginally published in 1797 and is shown here in its entirety, with theoriginal punctuation and grammar.
General Attentions.
Distances of files.
WHEN the Light Infantry companies are in line with their battalionsthey are to form and act in every respect as a company of the battalion, butwhen not in line they may loosen their files to six inches.
行间距
当轻步兵连同他们所属的营共同行动时,他们按和战列连一样的方法整队和行动;而在不与营共同行动的情况下,他们可以放开行间距至六英寸。
Open order.
Open order is to be two feet between each file.—The necessity ofincreasing this distance must depend on circumstances, and be regulated at themoment by the commanding officer.
疏散队形
疏散队形将使各伍间距达到两步。——指挥官可按具体情况在此基础长度上增加。
Manner of extending.
The files may be extended from right, left, or centre, according tocircumstances; in executing it each front rank man must carefully take hisdistance from the man next to him, on that side from which the extensionis made: the rear rank men conform to the movement of their file leaders.
When the company is not in extended order, all firing is to be by singlemen, each firing as quick as he can, consistent with loading properly: thefiring to begin from the flank, or from the point first formed.
延展方式
根据具体情况,伍可能会从其右部,左部,中央进行延展;在执行过程中,每一个身处列前的士兵必须谨慎控制与身旁士兵的距离。无论向任何方向进行延展,列后的士兵必须跟上列头士兵的动作。
当连队没有排成展开队列时,由士兵各自开火,每个士兵都要以恰当的装填方式快速射击,射击从侧翼或者最先完成整队的点开始。
Firing.
In firing in extended order, it is to be a standing rule, that the two menof the same file are never unloaded together, for which purpose, as soon as thefront rank man has fired he is to slip round the left of the rear rank man, whowill make a short pace forward, and put himself in the other’s place, whom heis to protect while loading.—When the first man returns his ramrod he will givehis comrade the word ready, after which, and not before, he may fire andimmediately change places as before.
开火
在展开队形下开火时的执行准则是,同一伍的两人绝不同时退弹,由此可以做到,前排士兵开火后立即撤步到身后士兵的左侧,而后者立即向前走一小步,这样前者就处在一个得到掩护的位置进行装填。——然后当第一位士兵完成上弹后他将给他的队友说一声“Ready”,他必须在说出词语后才可以开火并立即如之前所做的那样转换位置。
Advancing and retreating.
The same method of firing to be observed when advancing or retreating,which must always be in ordinary time (especially if cannon are orderedto the front with the light companies, which may often be the case).—
前进和后退
在一般情况下,开火方法在前进和后退时相同。(存在特别地情况,例如经常出现的加农炮被命令在轻步兵连地协同下前往前线。)
To cease firing.
Particular attention must be paid to cease firing on the first word, orsignal for that purpose.
停火
要特别注意停火所发出的第一个音节和信号。
Movements in quick time.
快步移动
All movements of the light companies, except when firing, advancing, orretreating, are to be in quick time.
轻步兵连的一切移动,除开火,前进,后撤的情况,都应处于快步。
Never to run unless ordered.
The light companies are never to run unless particularly directed, and inthat case they are only to run at that pace in which they can preserve theirorder; and it is to be a rule that the two men of the same file never separateon any account whatever.
除非接到命令,绝不奔跑
轻步兵连除非接收到特别指示,否则绝不奔跑,即使接到命令也必须以可以保持队形的速度跑动,同时规定两个同一伍的士兵无论任何情况绝不能分隔开。
Avoid confusion.
The utmost care to be taken to avoid confusion, which too much hurry, evenin the smallest bodies, will certainly occasion.—The intermixture of files cannever be allowed of.
避免混乱
对于避免混乱无论如何用心皆不为过,即便规模再小的部队也会在过分匆忙的情况下出现各伍糅合的状况——绝对不允许发生这种情况。
File movements.
伍的移动
Though all movements should be made in front as much possible, yet,from the nature of those of light infantry, and the ground they are moreparticularly liable to transverse, file movements may frequently be necessary.All such to be made from one of the flanks by previously facing to it, and thefiles to loosen, so as to march perfectly at ease, but not more.
尽管所有行动都应尽可能在前方完成,然而由于轻步兵兵种的性质,和在战场上他们以横向运动更加频繁。以各伍移动时必要的。这些运动都应从此前朝向他们的一侧开始进行,可以松散各伍间距以放松的行军,但不可以过分松散。
Forming to the front.
In forming, the inversion of files or of ranks is not to be attended to iftime is thereby gained. Forming to the front to be done by the filemoving briskly up to the right or left of the leading file as ordered.
向前排列
在组队时,若能争取时间则不用处理伍、列颠倒的情况。朝向前方的动作应由由伍在命令下向领头伍的左边或右边灵活机动完成。
Right or left.
Form to right or left.—Theleading file will halt and face as directed, as will the succeeding ones asthey come up to their proper distances.
左或右
向左或右排列——领头伍将面朝指示方向立定,后面各伍依次如此行动并移动到合适的距离。
Forward to right or left.
Form forward to right or left.—The leading file halts and faces as directed; the succeeding files lead roundthe rear, and form to the same front as the leading file has done, and at theirproper distances.
前出至右边或者左边——领头伍立定并面向指定方向,后方的各伍从它的后方绕过,并像领头伍所做的那样运动到相应位置,同时保持恰当距离。
Marching to rear and forming.
When marching to the rear by files, and to form to the front.—Theleading file will halt and front, the succeeding files will go round the rearof the leading file, and form on the right or left of it as directed. Formingto the right or left, or forward to right or left isdone in the same manner as when marching to the front.
当以伍形式行军至后方,并向前列队,领头伍将立定并朝向,后续各伍将绕至领头伍的后方,按照指令向左或向右列队。向左右的列队或前进的方法和向前行军是一样的。
Signals, &c. for officers commanding.
指挥官的指令
All signals, words of commands, and directions, arefor the officer commanding the company or division, who gives the necessaryorders in consequence.
所有信号、指挥用词、指令,均为指挥连或者分队的军官所用。该军官在以上基础上发出必要的命令。
Signals.
The necessary signals will be previously settled, and as they willbe very few and simple, the officers and non-commissioned officers are expectedto be masters of them.
信号
已经预先设计了必要的命令,因为这些信号简单且数量较少,军官与士官们需要熟练掌握它们。
Post of officers.
The officer commanding the company will be on the right, covered by aserjeant. The next on the left also covered by aserjeant. The youngest officer in the rear. In extended order the post of theofficers and serjeants is always in the rear equally divided where they mustpay particular attention that the men preserve their order, and that theylevel, fire, and load coolly and properly; they must likewise be attentive todirect them to the supposed object of attack.
In marching by files the officer commanding leads; by divisions eachofficer leads one. The supernumerary officer, if there be one, is in bothcases, with the officer commanding, ready to obey any directions he may receivefrom him.
军官的位置
连指挥官将位于右侧,并由一位中士掩护。左侧也有一位中士掩护。一位年轻军官处于后方。在队列展开时军官和中士的位置总是位于队伍后方,几人间的距离相等,他们此时必须特别注意要让士兵们保持队形,并使他们冷静正确地瞄准,开火,装填;并且也要留心去指示士兵们假想的攻击对象。
以伍为队形前进时指挥连队的军官走在队伍前面;分成几个部分前进时各个军官都要引导一个部分。在两种情况下如果有多出来的军官的话,此人则需要与指挥官走在一起,随时准备接受他的指令。
Taking post.
When a light company or detachment is ordered to takepost on any particular spot, it is to be the business of the officercommanding it to take the best advantage of the ground, observing that he mustnever disperse his company; but if it should be necessary to make smalldetachments from it, he must still preserve a part of his company or detachmentas a reserve on which those detachments may fall back; and this is to be ageneral rule in all cases where the strength of the party is sufficient toallow of making detachments from it.
占据位置
当轻步兵连或者分遣队被命令占据某一特定位置,指挥官负责最大化利用地形优势,注意绝不让他的连队分散;在需要分派出小型分遣队的情况下,他仍必须保留他的连的一部分或者分遣队作为预备队,因为派出的分遣队可能会败退;这也是一条当一方拥有足够的力量派出分遣部队时的泛用规则。
To cover in situations of defence.
The officers must also see that in situations of defencethe men cover themselves with trees, walls, large stones, or whatever maypresent itself. In firing from behind trees, large stones, &c. they are topresent to the right of the object which covers them; and in changing placeswith the other man of the file, after firing, they will step back, and to theleft, so that the rear rank man may step forward without being exposed.
防御状态下的掩护
军官在防御情形下需要注意士兵可以用来掩护自己的任何东西,诸如树木,墙壁,大石等等。在树木巨石等后开火时,他们将从掩护物的右方出现,当他们同同行的其他士兵交换位置时,他们将在开火后向左后退,这时列后的士兵可以向前占据此位置而不至于暴露。
Arms how carried.
The arms of light infantry in general will be carried sloped, and with thebayonets fixed. Flanking and advanced parties however, or parties in particularsituations, may carry them trailed and withoutbayonets, for the purpose of taking cooler and more deliberate aim.
如何携带武装
轻步兵的武器一般斜挎,且上刺刀,然而在前方或者侧翼的小组,或者处于特殊状态的小组,为更加轻松的携带和更加审慎的瞄准,可以拖着它们并且不上刺刀,
Light Infantry attached torespective Regiments when in Line.
轻步兵在横队中附属于各自的团
Divisions cover 2nd and 7th companies.
分队掩护第2和第7连
The light company will be posted in the rear of its respective regiment,divided in two divisions; that on the right will be in the rear of the secondcompany, that on the left in the rear of the seventh company, and they will atall times observe the distance of thirty paces.
轻步兵连分成两个分队应分别部署于他所附属团的后部。右侧的分队将在第2连的后方,左侧的分队在第7连后方,任何情况下它们都保持30步的距离。
Post of commanding officer.
指挥官的位置
The captain, or officer commanding will be with the right division.
上尉或者负责指挥的军官将同右侧分队在一起。
Line breaks into column.
横队分断为纵队
When the line breaks into column, if the light companies receive noparticular directions for covering either the front or flanks of the column,they will wheel as the companies of the battalion do, and conform themselves ofthe second and seventh companies, so as to at all times to be in their properplaces.
当横队分断转为纵队时,如果轻步兵连没有接受特定的指示去掩护纵队的前方或者侧翼,他们将和战列连一样进行旋转机动,并与第2与第7连保持一致,这样可以保证在任何情况下处于正确的位置。
Line forms close column.
横队组成闭合纵队
If the line forms a close column, and the light companies receive noparticular directions, they are to form by companies, and close up in the rearof the column, in the same manner as their respective battalions.
如果横队组成一个闭合纵队,而轻步兵连没有接到特定的指示,他们将按连部署,并按照与他们所附属的营以相同的方式在纵队后部闭合。
Line deploys.
横队展开
When the column deploys into line, the light companies will face each, asits battalion does, file with it in the rear; and when the battalion forms inthe line, will take its proper post in divisions behind the second and seventhcompanies.
当纵队展开为横队,轻步兵连将如同他们的营做的那样面对面,以行的形式处于后部,当营成横队时,将以分队在第2和7连后占据正确位置。
Cover front of battalions.
掩护营的前方
If the light companies are ordered to cover the line to the front, eitherby word or signal, the divisions will move to the front, from their innerflanks, round the flanks of the battalions; and when at the distance of fiftypaces, the leading flanks will wheel towards each other, so as to meet oppositethe centre of the battalion, opening their files gradually from the rear, so asto cover the whole extent of the battalion; the serjeant-coverer of each divisionattending to the files taking their proper distance, the files are to halt andfront of themselves.
如果轻步兵连接到口令或者信号的命令去掩护横队正面,分队将绕过营的侧面,沿内侧移向前方;当距离达到50步时,领头的侧面将转而面向对方,以此与营的中央相对,从后方逐步展开他们的各行,以此对营进行全面掩护,各分队的掩护中士前往各行并让自己处于与之适合的指挥距离,而各行将停下并面向他们。
Post of commanding officer.
指挥官的位置
In this position, and in all extended order, the post of the officercommanding is in the rear of the centre, and the movements are to be regulatedby the company belonging to the battalion, which regulates those of the line.
在这一位置和所有的展开命令下,指挥官的位于中央的后部,并随营属连的运动而运动,营控制横队。
Line halted or advancing when light infantry are called in.
横队处于停止或者前进状态下,轻步兵被召回
When the light companies are called in, the line may either be halted oradvancing. In the first case they will retire towards the line, closing totheir outer flanks by degrees, so as when they come near their battalions theymay be in two divisions ready to file round the flanks of the battalion totheir places. If the line is advancing, they will only close to their outer flanks,so as to be in two divisions by the time the line comes up to them, when theywill instantly face outward, and file to the rear.
当轻步兵连被召回时,横队可能处于停止或者前进两种状态。在横队停止状态下,他们将朝横队方向撤回,同时逐步向自己延展的两翼方向收缩,因此在他们到所属营的旁边时,应该已经变成两个在营的两翼旁准备好变换为行的分队。如果横队处于前进状态,他们将仅仅向两翼外侧缩,这样当横队到他们的位置时,他们要立即面向外侧,并在横队后方变换为伍。
Light Infantry Companies formedin Battalion.
轻步兵连以营形式部署
Movement same as the line.
同横队一样行动
When the Light Infantry companies are assembled in battalion, theirmovements must be on the same principles as those of the line; the officers andnoncommissioned officers posted in the same manner, and, as far as possible,the same words of command should be used; it is in their rapidity alone thatthey must be distinguished, to facilitate which the files are to be loosened tothe distance of six inches, but great care is to be taken that rapidity doesnot degenerate into confusion.
当轻步兵连以营集结,他们的行动应当与他们以横队行动时秉持相同原则。军官和未受任命的军官以相同方式占据位置并尽可能用相同的用词指挥。他们必须将迅速让自己易于辨识作为首要考虑,以及使各伍疏散至六英寸间距,当然不使队伍混乱是重中之重。
Quick time.
快步行进
When two or more companies are together, they are to consider themselvesas a battalion, the senior officer is to take the command, leaving theimmediate command of his own company to the next officer belonging to it.
当两个及以上连在一起时,他们将自己视为一个营,最高等级的军官负责指挥,而将他的连的临时指挥交付给该连下一顺位的军官。
Covering pivots, &c.
掩护中轴
As Light Infantry seldom act in large bodies, all their movements may bein quick time; but, when in column, the same attention must be paid to thepivots covering, and the preservation of distances, as is done by the line; thedoing so will always be found the quickest way of forming, by precluding thenecessity of much after-dressing.
轻步兵很少大规模行动,他们的一切移动均以快步;但是当处于纵队时,必须将同时将注意力投入到掩护中轴和距离控制上,就像横队做的那样;排除必要的整队外,如此做法将是组建队形最快的方式。
Regulating Company.
连队控制
In marching in line to the front a regulating company must be named, bywhich the others must carefully dress, and whose movements they must follow.The officer leading this regulating company must take points on which to marchperpendicular to the front of the battalion, and must lead steadily on them,though in quick time; without these precautions, and great attention being paidto them, the march in front must soon become irregular, the files willinevitably intermix, and great confusion must be the consequence.
在以横队向前行军时,必须指出一只基准连队,而其他连队则必须谨慎整队,跟从其运动。领导这一基准连队的军官必须取一些在营前方垂直于营的点,然后稳步沿此前进,即使仅仅是快步状态也需要这么做;如果不留心准备这些预备措施,前进行军会很快变得无规则,各伍将不可避免地混杂,而后果就是可怕的大混乱。
May occasionally run.
A battalion of light infantry may occasionally be ordered to run, for thepurpose of anticipating an enemy going to occupy any particular post; but indoing so, the utmost care is to be taken that confusion do not ensue; for whichpurpose, the velocity must never exceed that at which the divisions can keeptogether and be dressed; the distances must be preserved as much as possible.
可能在某些场合跑动
一个轻步兵营可能在某些情况下被命令跑动,如预计对方将去夺取某一特定阵地时;但在跑动时,首先必须注意不能发生混乱,无论目的如何其速度不能超过某一分队能保持协同和进行整队的极限速度;而且必须尽可能保持距离。
But generally in column.
Running must generally be in column;
一般情况下以纵队形式
一般以纵队队形跑动。
May in echellon.
but in case of absolute necessity to make a very quick movement to thefront, with a battalion of four or five companies or more, the best and easiestway of doing it without confusion will be in echellon, by companies,each retired six paces from the preceding one.
All columns of light infantry to be formed by sub-divisions, that is, halfcompanies.
可能成梯队
在必须快速抵达前沿,且这个营有4到5各连及以上,最好和最简单且不会引发混乱的执行方法就是成梯队,以连为单位,每一个连同前者后退六步距离。
所有的轻步兵纵队都要由子分队,也就是半连组成。
Forming from open column.
The forming from open column to the front may frequently be done by thedivisions obliquing to the right and left of the leading division, and ifnecessary firing as they come up. Light infantry firing in divisions is to bealways by single men, as directed in General Attentions.
从开放纵队展开
从开放纵队向战线的转变通常由左右倾斜于领头分队的分队完成,如有必要在此过程中也可开火。在分队中轻步兵的开火必须以单人形式操作,且需遵循general attention中的指示。
Movement by files.
Battalions of light infantry may frequently find it necessary to move byfile through woods, and over very rough countries: in all cases where it ispracticable it is to be done from the right or left of companies, and distancesmust be preserved for forming in the quickest manner possible.—Whenever onecompany forms, the rest are to do the same, even supposing they do nothear the word or signal for that purpose.
按伍移动
轻步兵营可能要经常以伍的队型穿过林地或者非常崎岖的地形,在任何可行的情况下都需要从连队的左侧或右侧开始进行,哪怕在追求最快速度的列队过程中也要保持好距离——一旦一个连队列队,即使在没有接收到相关的口令或者其他指令的情况下,其余各连必须做同样的动作。
Forming in front.
If to form to the front the leading file of each company halts anddresses, the rest move up to the right or left of them to their proper places.
前线(?)列队
如果向前列队,各连领头行立定并整队,剩下的移动到它的右边或者左边合适位置。
Forming in right or left.
If to form to the right or left, the companies first formseparately, and move up and dress with what will then be the front company, bywhich means the officer commanding will have it in his power to keep suchcompanies in reserve as he thinks proper, as also in forming to throw them tothe right or left of the front company, as circumstances may require; thecompanies which are to dress with the front company are to move up to itobliquely in line.
向右或左列队
如果向左或者右列队,各连首先分离列队,然后向前同先头连整队,这意味着指挥官拥有权力在认为合适的情况下保留一些连作为他的预备队,并依实际情形决定将他们投向先头连的左边或者右边;需要与先头连一起整队的各连则要斜向有秩序的向其靠拢。
Advanced and flanking parties.
A battalion of light infantry marching through a wood should have partiesin front and on its flank, in proportion to the strength of the battalion. Theparties should march in front with extended file, and if attacked must takepost and defend themselves till supported or called in.
前进和侧翼小组
一个轻步兵营穿越林地,应当在其前和其侧安排小组,小组的兵力视营的兵力而定。各组将同展开的伍一同行军,如果被攻击时,迅速占据位置并进行自卫,直至支援到达或者被召回。
To secure a wood.
When ordered to secure a wood of no very great extent, the battalionshould go through it and take post on the opposite side,within its skirt, so as to have the plain before it:in this, as well as in all other cases, parties should be detached 30 or 40 yardson the flanks.
肃清林地
当被命令肃清范围不大的林地时,营应当穿过林地并在另一边林地边缘的内侧占据阵地,以便获取前方的平原。和其他情况一样,小组应当分遣到侧翼30至40码处。
Firing in line.
When firing in line advancing, the march must be very slow, the line mustbe preserved, and the officers must take care to point out the supposed objectof attack, and see that the men direct their fire to it;—very particularattention is to be paid that the fire is directed to the proper object, andthat it ceases on the first word or signal for that purpose.
横队射击
以横队前进时开火,行军速度必须非常慢来保持横队队形,军官必须注意指出设想的攻击对象,并监视士兵将他们的火力径直投送过去。——必须特别注意火力被投向正确的目标,而且要在接到第一个要求停火的词或者信号时停火。
Co-operation with line.
When the light infantry in battalion is detached from the line, theofficer commanding must take care to understand thoroughly the nature of theintended movement, so as to be certain of cooperating with the line withexactness and precision.
同横队的协同
当轻步兵以营形式从横队中分遣,指挥官对行动计划必须有通透的理解,以此来保证准确精密地同横队进行协同。
To take post.
In general, the method of taking post with a battalion of light infantry,whether large or small, must depend upon the intelligence of the officer whocommands it, but he must observe the same rule as was given for a company, viz.Whatever detachments he may find necessary to make, always to keep the mostconsiderable part together as a reserve.
占据
一般来说,以一个营轻步兵占据据点的方法,无论规模大小,都取决于指挥官的智慧。但是他也必须遵守和连指挥情况下相同的规则,即无论他发觉需要派出多少分遣队,一定要将最大的一部分兵力聚集作为预备队
Commanding officer.
The success of any engagement in a wood, or strong country, depends uponthe coolness and presence of mind of the commanding officer, and the silenceand obedience of the men, fully as much as upon their bravery.
指挥官
在林地或者田野的任何战斗的胜利,取决于指挥官的冷静沉着,士兵的沉默服从,这些同他们的勇气同等重要。
Arms how carried.
The arms of the light infantry, when in battalion, while in movement, aregenerally to be sloped, but always by order, and their bayonets are to befixed.
如何携带装备
轻步兵的装备,当处于营状态时,当移动时往往斜挎,但按照命令具体行事,他们的刺刀也应装上。
Light infantry in line.
If at any time a battalion of light infantry is ordered into the line, thefiles must be closed, and it must in every respect act as other battalions ofthe line.
如果任何情况下一个营的轻步兵被下令进入横队,其各行必须闭合,然后所有行动和横队的其他营相同。
The Signals
The SIGNALS — To Advance; To Retreat;To Halt; To cease firing; to assemble, or call in allparties, are to be always considered as fixed and determined ones, and arenever to be changed. The bugle horn of each company is to make himself perfectmaster of them.
All signals are to be repeated.
All of those signals made from the line or column are to convey theintention of the commanding officer of the line to the officer commanding thelight infantry, who will either communicate them to the several companies ordetachments by word or signal.
信号——前进,撤退,立定,停火,集结,以及召回全体小组,这些信号是固定的,不必也不能改变。各连的号手必须完美掌握这些信号。
发出信号时需要重复多次。
从横队或纵队中发出的将横队指挥官的意图传达给轻步兵指挥官的所有命令,轻步兵指挥官应将此信号通过语言或信号传达到多个连或者分遣队。
(暂时如此,未来可能继续修改)
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发表于 2018-7-19 17:58:46 | 显示全部楼层
简单说一些看到的歧异之处

操典这个词日军和国军常用,不过解放军军语里一般对应成条令

company of the battalion,这里说的是战列连,英军一个营一般辖十个连,轻步兵连和掷弹兵连是侧卫连,剩余一至八连是战列连,一般写作battalion company,这里意思一样

file对应军语里的伍,rank对应列

quick time是快步
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-7-20 00:25:37 | 显示全部楼层
Gustavus 发表于 2018-7-19 17:58
简单说一些看到的歧异之处

操典这个词日军和国军常用,不过解放军军语里一般对应成条令

谢谢二爷指正。。。因为再过一两日就要回学校复习,所以着急发了稿子,这些内容我明后天会进行订正,然后再把语句理顺一些。
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