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[讨论] 你认为拿破仑的死因是...

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发表于 2006-9-13 21:52:17 | 显示全部楼层
原帖由 liongg 于 2006-9-13 21:33 发表
Whether or not Napoleon died of arsenic poisoning is an open question on which debate has been active since 1960. This work examined several of his hairs, cut at different times and in different places: two pieces cut the day after his death on the island of St. Helena (1821) and two pieces cut seven years earlier (1814) during his first exile on the island of Elba. INAA results show that all of the samples of Napoleon's hair have an elevated arsenic concentration. These results disfavor the arsenic poisoning theory. Aside from arsenic, 18 other elements are reported, providing additional information for examining the arsenic poisoning theory.

原来拿破仑的头发在1814年就检测出了高量砷...

[ 本帖最后由 iron duke 于 2006-9-13 21:57 编辑 ]
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 楼主| 发表于 2006-9-14 09:37:27 | 显示全部楼层
原帖由 iron duke 于 2006-9-13 21:52 发表

原来拿破仑的头发在1814年就检测出了高量砷...


急速增加应该是在圣赫勒拿的那段时候吧。
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发表于 2006-9-14 13:55:01 | 显示全部楼层
可是 liongg引的文章指出“这项研究检查了不同时间和地点剪下的头发。两个切片是来自1821年圣赫勒拿岛,拿破仑刚去世后。两个切片来自7年前的1814年,拿破仑第一次流放到厄尔巴岛时。INAA检测结果表明,所有这些拿破仑头发检测样本都是高砷含量。这个结果使砷中毒论显得不可靠。”
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发表于 2006-9-14 16:01:54 | 显示全部楼层
The historical outline of Vilnius pathological anatomy in the first half of the 19th century.

Sabat D.

Department of Pathomorphology, Medical Faculty in Zabrze, Silesian Academy of Medicine, Katowice. d.sabat@wp.pl

The first post mortem examination was performed in Vilnius by a priest Stefan Bisio in 1770. At the end of the 18th century, Jakub Briotet, a surgeon and anatomist, founded a modest anatomical (surgery) study. In 1804, Jan Piotr Frank and his son Jozef arrived to Vilnius and became professors of the University. Jan Piotr Frank took charge of the University Teaching Hospital and Jozef of the Chair of Pathology. When, in 1805, Jozef Frank took charge, after his father, of the University Hospital, he founded the first anatomopathological examination room there. The samples were obtained mainly from post mortem studies--autopsies. Most of the samples kept in spirit in the Frank's room were eaten by the starving French soldiers during the retreat of Napoleon's army. Getting dead bodies for the Universities was easy thanks to Tsar's decrees from the years 1793-1809 which ordered to open dead bodies and collect monsters. Moreover, a permission to transfer dead bodies from military hospitals to the University was issued in 1810. These decrees did not stop the cases of students digging out dead bodies from the graves, which still happened in 1810 and 1817. Jozef Frank acknowledged great role of post mortem in medicine teaching. He wrote: an author describing a disease with lethal outcome, who does not mention pathological changes found through autopsy is backward. Beside Frank's study, there was still a study founded by Briotet at the Vilnius University, at the Chair of Anatomy. In 1808, Tsar Alexander I designed ruins of Spaska Orthodox Church for an anatomic theater. After seven year redecoration works, it was opened. Beside the theater, dissection room and Veterinary Institute, the building included zoological, veterinary and anatomical museum. The growing anatomical museum had, in 1841, 2895 preparations including 1239 anatomopathological preparations. After closing down Vilnius University and opening Medical and Surgery Academy, pathological anatomy classes were introduced for the 5th year students in 1834. The first lecturer of pathological anatomy, as an individual subject, was Ludwik Siewruk. He started the classes in 1840 when he took charge of the Chair of Anatomy at the Moscow University. Jan Leonow continued the classes till the closing down of Medical and Surgery Academy by the tsar in 1842. The classes performed by Siewruk and Leonow were limited to lectures. Practical knowledge, autopsies were a part of pathology classes and specific therapy (3rd and 4th years of studies). After the Academy had been closed down, all the exhibits of the Vilnius anatomical museum, including anatomopathological preparations were moved to the anatomical museum of Kiev University. Few of them remained in the Vilnius Medical Society.
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发表于 2006-9-14 16:02:20 | 显示全部楼层
Napoleon facing the experts (1795-2001)]

[Article in French]

Lemaire JF.

After the autopsy in 1821 had concluded that stomach cancer was the cause of Napoleon's death other diagnoses have been suggested with mixed success. In 1913, the scientific community inclined to favour an amoebic attack as the cause of death but returned to the stomach cancer diagnosis in 1978. At the beginning of this century, the arsenic poisoning hypothesis has been given media coverage but it lacks any real scientific basis.



Further scientific evidence of the non-poisonous death of Napoleon.

Corso PF, Hindmarsh T.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, USA.

Napoleon's death has been historically attributed to cancer of the stomach. This has been documented in numerous writings including those of Antommarchi, Henry, and Shortt, all of whom were present at Napoleon's autopsy in 1821. These documents have been well preserved and have been accepted by historians and scholars worldwide as the probable cause of Napoleon's death. In an earlier presentation, the senior author presented a detailed historical review of Napoleon's death in a paper entitled 'The Last Days and Hours of Napoleon-What Really Happened'. This was given at the famous 'Debate of the Century' at the Napoleonic Society Meeting in Chicago, Illinois, in September of 1994. This paper will concern itself more specifically with new scientific material giving additional support to the cancerous cause of Napoleon's death, and with the lack of evidence of any substance which could cause his death to be attributed to arsenic poisoning. Hairs previously untested and even unknown to exist provide the basis for this new evidence.
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发表于 2006-9-14 16:03:41 | 显示全部楼层
Napoleon's death has been historically attributed to cancer of the stomach!!!!!!!!
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发表于 2006-9-14 17:44:34 | 显示全部楼层
看了medline上抄来的文章以后,我就想开粗口,原来我被骗了这么多年!!

从小各种书上面都写拿破仑是死于砒霜中毒,其实主流研究认为还是胃癌!!(尸检应该是“金标准”,很难推翻)

哎呀呀呀呀!!•—%¥##%……—%!!中国众多著者多是文抄公,只要有一个人翻译了国外资料,大伙就一窝蜂的去抄。一个人犯了错误,大家一块犯!!

相同的情况还有耶稣死亡原因的研究,也是这样。把国外已经否定的论点到处传播!!
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发表于 2006-9-14 23:11:36 | 显示全部楼层
我认为还有个传说也挺可信——在布伦军营(皇帝的新装)。
还有一种说法:说皇帝是砒霜慢性中毒,皇帝怕人下毒害他,就每日服用微量砒霜。使身体产生抗药性。结果适得其反。
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 楼主| 发表于 2006-9-15 06:52:57 | 显示全部楼层
原帖由 iron duke 于 2006-9-14 13:55 发表
可是 liongg引的文章指出“这项研究检查了不同时间和地点剪下的头发。两个切片是来自1821年圣赫勒拿岛,拿破仑刚去世后。两个切片来自7年前的1814年,拿破仑第一次流放到厄尔巴岛时。INAA检测结果表明,所有这些拿 ...


我觉得文章本身有问题,1814年哪里来的头发呢?难道是卧室里掉落的

1821年的头发来源比较可靠,因为各种回忆录记载(尤其是马尚那部)皇帝临死前将头发分给众人。
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发表于 2006-9-15 13:28:43 | 显示全部楼层
原帖由 朔风 于 2006-9-15 06:52 发表


我觉得文章本身有问题,1814年哪里来的头发呢?难道是卧室里掉落的

1821年的头发来源比较可靠,因为各种回忆录记载(尤其是马尚那部)皇帝临死前将头发分给众人。

1814年流放厄尔巴岛时,尼尔.坎贝尔爵士应该给拿破仑作体格检查的,头发样本应该是那时取的。
和洛爵士不一样,坎贝尔是个老好人,曾替拿破仑拿不到年金鸣不平。到拿破仑逃离后,仍坚持如果盟国守信用给年金,拿破仑不会出厄尔巴。
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