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本人进度,开始更新140-153页——全部完成

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发表于 2013-8-28 15:55:59 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 王法拉 于 2013-11-21 09:54 编辑

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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 16:00:19 | 显示全部楼层
目前完成第140-153页, 博罗季诺战役第二阶段(上午12点到下午6点) 北方部分——骑兵突击。地名及人名尚未完全替换。时间仓促,工作紧张,有不足之处请各位指正,谢谢
      
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 17:18:07 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 王法拉 于 2013-8-30 16:10 编辑

140页  博罗季诺战役第二阶段(上午12点到下午6点)

We left the village of Borodino shortly after the attack by Delzon's division in the opening act of the battle. The village was recaptured by the counter-attacking Russian troops, who were then ordered to abandon it to the French. For the next several hours, one brigade of Delzon's division was engaged in intermittent skirmishing with the Russian Jagers along the river, while the second brigade was deployed north of the village. The 21st and 22nd Light Cavalry Brigades were moved to the left bank of the Voina to cover the left flank of the French troops at Borodino. Not far from them was the 84th Line, while two squadrons of the 4th Bavarian Chevau-leger left behind near the village of Bezzubovo.

在Delzon师开始进攻之后不久,我们离开了博罗季诺村。反击而来的俄军重新占据了村落,但随后就被命令放弃那里。在接下来的几个小时里,Delzon师的一个旅专注于对付河边的俄军猎兵,另一个旅则部署在北面的村子中。第21、22轻骑兵旅被调动到Voina河左岸,以此来掩护博罗季诺法军的左翼。离他们不远是第84线列步兵团,第4巴伐利亚轻骑兵的两个中队部署在Bezzubovo村的近左后方。
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 17:21:26 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 王法拉 于 2013-9-18 14:47 编辑

141页

General Anthouard Vraincourt deployed his and Colonel Millot's batteries on the heights east of Borodino and maintained fire against the Russian right flank. Sources disagree on the number of French guns involved, estimates varying from twenty to almost 100. Labaume and Laugier indicate that, in addition to his own battery, Anthouard de Vraincourt was also assisted by the reserve artillery of the 15th Division and the Italian Guard. Russian participants agree that the French had set up 'large batteries' near Borodino, which waged an efficient fire. Memoirs of Bavarian officers reveal that their cavalry was dismounted until noon and observed the ongoing battle from a distance. By late morning, as the fighting at Semeyonovskoye and Rayevsky's Redoubt escalated, Napoleon had only about 10,000 men, including some 2,000 cavalrymen, covering his extreme left flank while the majority of his forces were shifted to the centre and the right flank. As a result, his left wing became weakened and, as Pelet noted, 'attacking with its right shoulder forward [the French] gradually subsided from the New Smolensk Road, which served as their line of communication'.

Anthouard Vraincourt 将军把他和Millot's上校的炮兵设在博罗季诺东边的高地上,与俄军右翼不断交火。各种资料给出的法国火炮数目从20到100不等。Labaume 和Laugier指出,除了他自身的炮兵排,Anthouard Vraincourt将军还得到了来自第15师和意大利近卫军预备火炮的支持。俄国方面的亲历者也同意“法军在博罗季诺附近部署了大量火炮”这一说法,而法国炮兵也的确提供了有效的火力支援。巴伐利亚军官们的回忆中透露到,他们的骑兵直到中午都没有上马,一直在远处观看将要开始的战斗。早上晚些时候,在经历了Semeyonovskoye 和Rayevsky多面堡战斗之后,拿破仑手中只有大约1万人可供调遣,这其中包括了约2千骑兵用来掩护他极为突出的左翼,而此时法军的主力已经往中央和右翼运动。这使得法军左翼变得虚弱,而像Pelet记录的:俄军右翼的进攻在法军的交通线——新斯摩棱斯克大道才逐渐平息。


Northern Sector - The Cavalry Raid
Around 7am, shortly after the combat for Borodino ended. Ataman Platov, with the Ilovaisky V, Grekov XVIII, Kharitonov VII, Denisov VII, Zhirov and parts of the Ataman and Simferopol Horse Tartar Regiments, departed his camp and began moving along the right flank of the Russian Army.^^^ Clausewitz, who was at the Russian headquarters, recalled that Platov was astonished where he had expected to find the entire left wing of the enemy to meet with few or no troops. He saw the left wing of [Eugene] moving against Borodino and it seemed to him that nothing would be easier to fall on its left flank, et csetera [...] In short, Platoff [s;c] dispatched the Prince of Hesse-Philippsthal who was with him as a volmiteer, to General Kutuzov to acquaint him with the discovery he had made and to make the proposal to throw a considerable body of cavalry over the river by the ford and fall on the exposed flank of the enemy.

Colonel Ernst Constantine Flesse-Philippsthal was forty-one years old and, although Clausewitz describes him as 'a young officer without experience', he did serve in the Hessian Army for many years before enlisting in the Russian military in 1808, fighting the Turks and suffering two serious wounds in as many years. Platov's idea appealed to him and he presented it to Colonel Toll 'with so much liveliness that at first it really had a winning appearance'. Clausewitz noted that Hesse-Philippsthal reached headquarters at an important moment, when Toll just returned with an exaggerated report that  all was going on favourably [on the left wing], Bagration having repulsed every attack. At the same moment arrived an account that in the redoubt of the centre, which had for a moment been regained from the French who had stormed it, the King of Naples had been taken prisoner.

北方部分——骑兵的袭击

在大约上午7点,博罗季诺村战斗结束后一小会儿,Platov和Ilovaisky V, Grekov XVIII, Kharitonov VII, Denisov VII, Zhirov及部分鞑靼骑兵离开了他们的营地,沿着俄军右翼开始运动。当时正在俄军司令部克劳塞维茨回忆道,Platov 在预计的敌军左翼几乎没有发现军队时大吃一惊。而此时欧仁的左翼正向着博罗季诺反方向移动,瞧上去似乎不堪一击。随后,Platov派出麾下的志愿者Hesse-Philippsthal王子(亲王还是王子),到库图佐夫那里去通报敌情,并且建议投入大批骑兵跨河作战,攻击暴露在平原上的敌人。
41岁的Ernst Constantine Flesse-Philippstha上校尽管被克劳塞维茨描述成一位毫无经验的新手,但1808年参加俄军之前已经在黑森军队里有多年的服役经历,并因与土耳其的战斗两次负重伤。他十分积极地向Toll上校提交了Platov的建议(这个提案也甚合他胃口 )——而这个建议开始看起来也的确很有赢面。克劳塞维茨记录到,Hesse-Philippsthal在一个重要的时候来到了指挥部,那时Toll刚刚带着一份夸大的报告回来:诸事皆顺(左翼),巴格拉季昂挫败了敌人的每一次进攻。同时一个消息传来:在刚刚从法军手中夺回的中央阵地多面堡中,俄军俘虏了那不勒斯国王。
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 17:44:33 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 王法拉 于 2013-9-24 09:15 编辑

142页

The reader certainly remembers that situation was far from favourable on the left wing, where Bagration's troops were in the midst of a bloodbath, and that 'the King of Naples' was none other than the unfortunate General Bonnamy. But the truth is in the eye of beholder and, as Clausewitz recalled 'the enthusiasm blazed up like lighted straw' when Toll and Hesse-Philippsthal laid before Kutuzov the idea of attacking the French left flank Clausewitz was cautious of the idea and he criticized Toll, who was 'too much carried away by the pervading feeling, believed that a lively diversion with a corps of cavalry on the enemy's left would strike an effectual blow and perhaps decide the battle'.

读者一定能发现这个情况离左翼的进展相差很远,巴格拉季昂的军队正处于这个杀戮之地的中央,而那不勒斯国王不是别人,正是那不幸的Bonnamy将军(等我把前文再看一遍,这里有些问题)。但是真相是怎样的呢?根据旁观者和克劳塞维茨的回忆,当Toll 和Hesse-Philippsthal在库图佐夫前提出进击法军左翼的建议时,人们的热情仿佛像被点着的干草,猛烈地燃烧了起来。克劳塞维茨对这个建议持谨慎态度,并且质疑了当时沉浸在狂热气氛中的Toll,后者坚信,以一个骑兵军在左翼积极地活动会调动敌方注意,并会给法军一个有力的打击——这很可能决定这场战役的胜负。
Bennigsen, who was present at this scene, later wrote in his memoirs: After the enemy launched an attack, as I predicted, against our left wing, I hurried to Prince Kutuzov and told him the following, 'If you do not want to have your left wing shattered, you must reinforce it with the troops from the right flank; if only they would arrive in time there.' Kutuzov listened to me and then ordered to send some troops to strengthen our left flank.

当时在场的本尼格森,后来写下了他的回忆:在敌军像我预料的那样向我军左翼发起进攻后,我立即赶去面见库图佐夫并且告诉他:“如果你不想看着左翼被击溃,那就必须用右翼的部队来增援,并期望援军能及时赶到。”库图佐夫接受了我的意见,向左翼派出了增援。

Bennigsen then listened to Toll's report on the cavalry raid and witnessed Kutuzov's approval of it.^®^ Lowenstern, Barclay de Tolly's adjutant, reached headquarters to find Kutuzov standing still, surrounded by a large suite. Throughout the day. General Bennigsen and Colonel Toll explored the batdefield on the orders of Kutuzov. Bennigsen briefly stopped to talk to Barclay de Tolly, and when he left, Barclay told me, 'This man would spoil everything - he is very envious. His self-esteem makes him think that only he is capable to give a batde and conduct it with success. There is no doubt that he is talented but he seeks to use his skills only to satisfy his ambidon; he is disinterested in this great and sacred matter [and] I consider his presence with the army as a great adversity. Kutuzov shares my opinion. Let us see now how he would execute a cavalry movement on our extreme right flank, which I count on to move forward with all my reserves. This should deliver a powerful blow to the enemy.

本尼格森之后听了Toll的骑兵突击报告并看到库图佐夫批准了行动。巴克莱的副官Lowenstern 到指挥部时发现库图佐夫依然站着,周围则是一大群随从。本尼格森将军和Toll上校奉库图佐夫的命令用整整一天探察了战场。本尼格森停下来简短地和巴克莱交谈了一会,在他离开后,巴克莱告诉我:“这个男人的嫉妒心会把事情搞砸的。自尊让他认为我们只有靠他才能取得胜利。他的才智毋庸置疑,可是他所做的一切仅仅是为了满足自己的野心罢了;他对这神圣而伟大的战斗毫不关心,我认为他在军队中的表现是个灾难。库图佐夫知道我的看法。让我们看看他如何在右翼实行一次骑兵突击,我倒是指望所有的后备军都向那里前进。我们该狠狠地打击敌人。“

Memoirs suggest that the proposal for launching a cavalry raid came from Platov, via Prince Hesse-Philippsthal and Toll, to Kutuzov. However, subsequent battle histories sought to mitigate the awkward fact that such a 'great' idea did not emanate from the Commander-in-Chief. So attempts were made to correct it. Thus, according to Alexander Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky, receiving reports on casualties on the left flank,
Kutuzov  desiring to personally confirm their veracity, ascended a nearby hill that was showered by grenades and their fragments [...] The life of a man on whom Russia placed her hopes was now hanging by a hair. In vain did his adjutants try to persuade him to come down from the hill and, when no arguments convinced him, the adjutants simply took the reigns of his horse and led him out of the fire. After this personal observation, Kutuzov made two orders [...] [and under the second order,] Platov, with Cossacks, and Uvarov, with the I Cavalry Corps, were to ford the Kolocha upstream from Borodino and attack the enemy  jgft wing. With such movement, Prince Kutuzov sought to distract Napoleon's attention and divert some of his forces from our left wing.^^^

回忆录里暗示Platov是发起骑兵突击的首倡者,经由Hesse-Philippsthal 和 Toll传递给库图佐夫。不过,后世的战史简略了未经指挥部而发出这样的“伟大“命令带来的可怕的影响。人们之后不得不做很多努力来弥补失误。因此,根据Alexander Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky的回忆,在接到了左翼伤亡的报告后,库图佐夫决定亲自了解下实际情况,他登上了附近一座被弹雨覆盖的小山。这个寄托了俄国希望的人此时生命如悬一线。他的随从们试图劝说他从山上下来,可是都无功而返,当他没有拿定主意的时候,随从们只能牵着他的马带他脱离战火。在亲自观察了战局后,库图佐夫下达两个命令:派出Platov的哥萨克部队连同Uvarov的第一骑兵军对法军左翼实行攻击。库图佐夫希望用这次行动分散拿破仑的注意力,减轻俄军左翼的压力。
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 17:54:46 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 王法拉 于 2013-8-29 14:12 编辑

143页

This account leaves no doubt who came up with the idea of the cavalry raid and then made a decision to act upon it. It was Kutuzov, without any input from other generals. However, Clausewitz left a drastically different account of how Kutuzov arrived at his decision. After Toll presented Platov's suggestion, the Russian Commander-in-Chief simply replied 'C'est bon, prenez le!' Kutuzov 'had been listening to all the reports and discussions like one who did not exactly know whether he stood on his head or his heels, and only from time to time said "C'est bon, faites le!" ' This version is plainly critical of Kutuzov, who shows no initiative and passively observes the flow of the battle.

这个解释毋庸置疑地指出了谁提出骑兵突击和决定实施行动。库图佐夫没有受到别人的影响,独自下达了命令。但是,克劳塞维茨却对库图佐夫如何作出决定有完全不同的解释。在Toll传达了Platov的建议后,俄军司令部仅仅简单的回复了“好的”.库图佐夫听取了所有的报告和讨论,但好像并没有拿定主意,仅仅说“让他们干吧”。这种说法对库图佐夫没有对战斗表现出积极态度持批评意见。

These contrasting accounts eventually produced feuding factions, which sought to correct the historical record. Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky's attempt to embellish Kutuzov's reputation was certainly due to his status as a court historian, whose writings were regularly censored. However, the historian also had a personal feud with Colonel Toll, which probably made him seek ways to erase his rival from the annals of history. Among participants of the battle, Bennigsen, Wolzogen and Toll were highly critical of Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky and tried to correct Kutuzov's role in making the decision.On the opposite side, Liprandi objected to Clausewitz's account and called for Russian historians to rely on memoirs of 'genuine' Russians rather than of 'some foreign German'. Liprandi argued that if the cavalry raid idea was first suggested by Platov, he would have been appointed to command it, especially considering the fact that Uvarov was a lieutenant general, while Platov was a full general. He also disputed the notion of Toll being able to influence Kutuzov and instead portrayed Kutuzov as a strong-willed and independent leader.

这个迥然不同的记述带来了长期的争论,这些持不同意见的人期望还原历史。Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky作为受到写作审查的官方学者,努力地维护库图佐夫的声誉。但是,历史学家们对于Toll上校也有长期争论,他似乎用了某种方法从历史记录上抹掉了自己的对手。战役亲历者如本尼格森、Wolzogen、Toll 被Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky多加抨击以此来修正库图佐夫的形象。另一方面,Liprandi反对克劳塞维茨的说法,并号召俄国人依靠自己的回忆而不是德国人来做出判断。Liprandi争论说如果发动骑兵突击是Platov第一个提出来的,那他应该受命去指挥战斗,特别提到Uvarov是中将军衔,而Platov的军衔是上将。他也争论到Toll的观点也会影响库图佐夫,库图佐夫并不是一个意志坚强、独立自主的领导。

This approach was later taken by the Soviet historians and can be traced through virtually all Soviet-era publications. Beskrovny, in his 1951 study, asserted that Kutuzov was the person behind the manoeuvre and it was due to his 'anticipating Kutuzov's counter-manoeuvre' that Napoleon refused to commit his Imperial Guard elsewhere. Tarle repeated Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky's account and described the raid as Kutuzov's 'sudden and truly ingenious decision' and 'cunningly conceived and brilliantly executed diversion'. Garnich went as far as to claim that Kutuzov 'planned this manoeuvre before the battle' and was supported in this assertion by Beskrovny, who, in his 1968 study, believed that 'Kutuzov seized [the] initiative from Napoleon by dispatching M.I. Platov and P.P. Uvarov's cavalry on flanking raid'.^^^ To support this official version of history, special artworks were commissioned, depicting Kutuzov actively directing Platov (who was not at Gorki at all) and Uvarov to launch the raid. All these claims were far-fetched. Kutuzov could not have conceived the raid prior to the battle, since he was still concerned that Napoleon would make his main attack against the Russian right flank so Platov, acting with Cossacks only, could produce no tangible results. Instead, Kutuzov's initial order simply instructed Platov to make a reconnaissance of the enemy left flank and the Cossack Ataman's six regiments were more than enough for forceful scouting.

这个观点在苏联时代被学者广为接受,所有的苏联时代的出版物里都沿用了这一论点。Beskrovny在他1951年的研究报告里,断言库图佐夫就是这次行动的策划者,正是由库图佐夫发起的这次攻势,拖住了拿破仑的帝国近卫军。Tarle重复了 Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky的记述,把这次突击描述成库图佐夫“突然、富有创造性的决定,并收获了极好的效果“。Garnich也宣称库图佐夫在战斗之前便对这次行动有所谋划,他的依据来自Beskrovny,后者在1968年的研究中相信库图佐夫通过派出Platov 和Uvarov的骑兵进行突击,从拿破仑手里夺过了战场主动权。为了使官方的说法更有信服力,各种描述库图佐夫直接命令Platov 和Uvarov(前者当时根本不在高地上)积极出击的艺术作品被创造出来。这些说法都和事实相距甚远。库图佐夫并没有优先考虑这次骑兵突击,既然他只关心拿破仑主攻方向的俄军右翼,那么仅仅派出Platov的哥萨克不会对战局产生重大影响。换句话说,库图佐夫只是让Platov对法军左翼进行一次突击,六个哥萨克团的兵力对于这次威力侦察来说绰绰有余。
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 18:00:24 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 王法拉 于 2013-9-24 09:19 编辑

144页

So, the decision to launch a raid was made. Kutuzov agreed to assign half of Platov's Cossacks (up to 2,700 men) and Uvarov's entire I Cavalry Corps (about 2,440 men with twelve guns) for this mission.^^^ The strength of the Russian cavalry committed to this manoeuvre varies between Russian and Western studies, mainly because the latter often include Platov's total Cossack force, when in reality he led only six regiments.The attacking body consisted entirely of cavalry, without infantry support, and as such could hardly have achieved serious results. Clausewitz lamented that 'a due estimate of the magnitude of the undertaking was wanting ...'

于是,俄军做出了突击的决定。库图佐夫同意分派Platov麾下一半的哥萨克(约2700人)和Uvarov指挥的整个第1骑兵军(约2440人,12门火炮)来执行这次任务。实施这次突击的俄国骑兵兵力在俄国和西方学界有不同的说法,主要是因为后者经常算上了所有的哥萨克,但实际上只有六个团。突击部队全部由骑兵组成,没有步兵协同支持,这很可能导致严重的后果。克劳塞维茨对预期和实际行动的规模差异感到十分遗憾。

The area between Bezzubovo and Borodino was intersected by several marshy rivulets with steep banks. Just south of Bezzubovo was a small lake, created by a dam on the Voina stream. The banks of the stream were steep, as Lieutenant Heilbronner attested. A small mill with a bridge was situated near the dam. The Allied 21st Light Cavalry Brigade was moved to the left bank of the Voina around 10am, while the 22nd and 13th Brigades were on the opposite bank along with the Bavarian battery of Captain Wiedemann. The French infantry was also deployed along the banks: the 84th Line being near the mill, while the 92nd and 106th further south. There were additional French forces available at the confluence of the Voina and Kolocha, where Chastel's 3rd Light Cavalry Division, La Houssaye's 6th Heavy Cavalry Division, and the Italian Guard with artillery were located.

Bezzubovo和博罗季诺的中间区域被陡峭的河岸分成数块。在Bezzubovo的正南方有一个由Voina河大坝而形成的小湖。就像Heilbronner少尉说的那样,极为陡峭。在大坝附近有一个连着桥的小磨坊。第21轻骑兵旅在上午10点左右被派往Voina河左岸,与此同时第22和第13旅同Wiedemann上尉的巴伐利亚炮兵排一起处于河的对岸。法国步兵沿河列阵:第84线列步兵团在磨坊附近,第92和106团则在更远的南方。在Voina 和 Kolocha的法军可以对他们进行增援,那里部署有Chastel的第3轻骑兵师、La Houssaye的第6重骑兵师和配属炮兵的意大利近卫军。

As his cavalry began moving, Uvarov forded the Kolocha near Maloye Selo and deployed the Yelisavetgradskii Hussars and the Guard Cossacks in the front line, with the Guard Dragoons, Uhlans and Hussar regiments behind them. The Nezhinskii Dragoons and the 2nd Horse Artillery Company were moving further in the rear. According to Clausewitz, 'it was between 11 [am] and 12[noon]' when Uvarov's troops finally reached the Voina stream. Lowenstern, standing near Gorki, was dissatisfied the way Uvarov handled the attack, noting that 'either orders were not particularly precise or the General, who was entrusted with this attack, was not sufficiently skilled; in any case, the movement was carried out quite clumsily. General Uvarov, who directed it, showed himself as an incompetent man.' Uvarov's slow movement can be partially explained by the rough terrain, but one can agree with Lowenstern's lament that the Russians 'could have achieved completely different results if the cavalry, delegated to turn the enemy left flank, were commanded by someone of Vasilchikov's, Pahlen's, Lambert's or Chernyshev's stature'. Instead, the Russian cavalry advance was 'remarkably slow-paced and [...] seemed to tell the enemy "Beware!" [instead of attacking] [...] the entire manoeuvre was executed methodically and unhurriedly。’


在他的骑兵开始行动的时候,Uvarov 在Maloye Selo附近渡过了 Kolocha河,他在前线部署了Yelisavetgradskii骠骑兵和近卫哥萨克,紧随其后的则是近卫龙骑兵、枪骑兵和骠骑兵。Nezhinskii龙骑兵和第2骑炮连在更远的后方。根据克劳塞维茨的说法,大概在上午11点到中午12点,Uvarov的部队到达Voina河边。在Gorki附近的 Lowenstern并不满意Uvarov进攻的方式,命令没有精确的传达到将军手中,而热心于进攻的将军的指挥水平也不敢恭维。不管怎么说,这是一次极为拙劣的行动。Uvarov将军把他的无能淋漓尽致地展现了出来。他慢吞吞的行动部分可以归因于糟糕的地形,但有一点,就像Lowenstern悲叹的那样,俄军骑兵如果由Vasilchikov, Pahlen, Lambert 或者 Chernyshev那样的人来指挥进击敌军左翼,将取得完全不同的战果。但现在俄军的慢吞吞行动仿佛在告诉敌人:留神!我们来了!整个行动的实施可以用“毫无章法,拖沓犹豫”八个字来形容。

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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 18:09:21 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 王法拉 于 2013-9-24 09:24 编辑

145页

Lieutenant Heilbronner of the 4th Chevau-leger was with his company, assigned to patrol duty along the stream, where he could see uch steep banks that it seemed impossible to me that a cavalry could cross the river here. So I calmly watched the opposite bank that suddenly became alive with enormous masses of enemy cavalry. Numerous horsemen appeared seeking a ford. Suddenly, a long cavalry column approached [the brook] and, descending into the ravine, it crossed it. I quickly turned back to withdraw my company but it was too late and a moment later I was in a tight circle of attacking Russian cavalrymen and all of us galloped in confusion through the woods. These were the troops of the [Russian] Guard light cavalry under [the] command of Uvarov, who decided to launch this attack to turn our left flank. I noticed that the enemy cavalry was in disarray and, it was a bit slighting that the enemy cavalrymen did not even notice my small detachment. And so I moved amidst a glittering escort of Guard Hussars and Cossacks, completely unnoticed by them ..

第四轻骑兵队Heilbronner少尉的连被派往河边巡逻,河岸是如此陡峭,骑兵想要从哪里过河简直是异想天开。所以他只是静静的看着对面,突然河那边嘈杂起来,出现了大群的俄军骑兵。数不尽的骑手都在寻找渡河点,突然,一长列骑兵接近了河岸,他们渡河了。少尉立刻返身撤回连队,可是一切已经太迟了,一瞬间,他就被攻过河的俄军骑兵紧密围住,所有的人都困惑地躲在林木中。这些部队来自攻击法军左翼的俄国近卫轻骑兵 (Uvarov部)。少尉注意到敌军骑兵没有发现他的小队,于是他从近卫骠骑兵和哥萨克的中间得以溜出而丝毫未引起敌人的留意。

Platov, informed of Uvarov's advance, ordered his Cossacks to spread along the valley and harass the enemy lines. Cossacks made several charges to probe the French defence and the Ataman reported that he 'acted offensively against the enemy cavalry and infantry, which was in the woods, and after numerous charges, we routed [the French] cavalry and captured up to 200 [men].''*"'- With a mass of blue and red uniformed Cossacks moving towards the enemy, Glinka recaUed that the entire valley suddenly flushed brightly with Don Cossacks. They began making circles and flaunting their tricks. The French forward patrols quickly fled [but] the Cossacks sat on their shoulders! The French and Germans tried in vain to fend them off with their long swords and spurred their heavy horses [to escape]: yet, the Don Cossacks, braced to their saddles, flew like arrows on their small horses, circled around, rushed forward and stung them with their lances like incensed wasps. It soon began to resemble a hunt on hares. Russian soldiers, standing near the Gorki Heights [...] saw the Don Cossacks' valour and cheered them: they waived their hands, laughed aloud and yelled, 'Look at them, look at them! Well done Cossacks! Bravo Cossacks! Show no mercy to the French!'

Platov 获悉Uvarov出动,也命令他的哥萨克沿着山谷展开并袭击敌军的线路。为了探测法军的防御,哥萨克发动了数次冲锋,哥萨克首领报告说道“行动遭到了树林中敌军步骑兵的积极抵抗,在大规模冲击后,我们驱逐了法军骑兵,俘虏了约200人”大群红蓝制服的哥萨克向着敌军进发,Glinka 回忆中,顿河哥萨克的浪潮淹没了整个山谷。他们开始庆贺并炫耀自己的马术。法军先锋快速地后退,但哥萨克已经冲了上来!法国人和德国人徒劳的挥舞着长剑,用靴刺狠狠地催马加速,但这一切都是徒劳的。哥萨克在他们的轻型马上如箭飞至,手里的骑枪似毒蜂般刺出。战斗马上变成了追猎。在Gorki高地上的俄军目睹了哥萨克的英勇并为此高声欢呼:“看啊!看啊!好样的哥萨克!勇猛的哥萨克!不要可怜那些法国佬!”

As soon as the Russian cavahy was noticed, Ornano sent an urgent message to Eugene, which was received as the Viceroy was preparing for a new assault on Rayevsky's Redoubt."^®^ Con cerned about the flanking manoeuvre, Eugene halted his attack and, sending his adjutant to inform Napoleon, rushed himself to the new theatre of action. As Clausewitz described: the village [of Borodino] lay on [Uvarov's] left, in which the troops of [Eugene] had established themselves; before him was the brook, which runs through swampy meadows. On his side of it stood a couple of regiments of cavalry and a mass of infantry [...] The French cavalry retired immediately over a dam, which crossed the brook at about 2,000 paces from Borodino; the infantry, how-ever, was bold enough to remain and form square with the dam in their rear.

在俄军骑兵被发现的同时,Ornano 向欧仁发出了一条紧急消息,后者收到的时候正准备对Rayevsky's 多面堡发动新的突击。考虑到这些,欧仁停止了攻击,派出他的副官向皇帝通报消息,告诉他新出现的威胁。就像克劳塞维茨记述的:博罗季诺村在Uvarov的左侧,此时欧仁的部队已经占领了这里,在其前方则是流过沼泽地的河流。在他的一侧有两个骑兵团和大量的步兵。法军骑兵立刻通过离博罗季诺约两千步的跨河坝撤退,剽悍的步兵聚成方阵紧随其后。

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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 18:15:43 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 王法拉 于 2013-9-24 09:32 编辑

146页


Among the French Regiments were the 84th Line, which organized square in front of the dam, while the 1st Croatian Provisional Regiment, the 92n^d Line and 8th Light deployed into battalion squares further downstream. Mitarevsky, standing near Rayevsky's Redoubt, claimed the enemy troops were in confusion, 'running on the riglit side from the village [Borodino] and moving into the field, where they organized several squares a few moments later'.Meanwhile, Glinka recalled that:
The commotion at Borodino did not escape the eyes of [Russian] spectators [...] 'Look! Look! The Frenchies ["Frantsuzishki"] are making a square: they are in trouble. We are winning!' [the soldiers shouted] and many of them clapped and yelled 'Hurrah!"'

对面是在坝前结成方阵的法军第84线列步兵团,此时第1克罗地亚暂编团,第92线列团和第8轻步兵团也在下游以营为单位结阵。当时正在Rayevsky多面堡 附近的Mitarevsky说,敌军处于混乱,他们跑向博罗季诺的右面田野中,一会后在那里组成了数个方阵。与此同时,Glinka回忆道:博罗季诺村的骚动没有逃过俄军的眼睛“快看!法国佬结成了方阵:他们遇到大麻烦了,我们胜利了!”许多士兵为此鼓掌雀跃,大声欢呼。

According to Prince Eugene, Delzon's troops rapidly formed into squares but this formation was not yet accomplished when the Croats received a charge that they repulsed with their fire. The enemy cavalry, reinforced by new squadrons, came to charge the 84th, which received it in the same manner. The forces of this cavalry were increasing each moment, it renewed successfully its charges on the square of the 8th Light and the Croats, of the 84th and the Eugene got to the front line during one of the Russian cavalry attacks and, as Lejeune described, he 'was going about amongst his battalions' when the Russians, 'who had probably recognized him, ordered a considerable body of Cossacks to charge and try to carry [Eugene] off.

根据欧仁的说法,Delzon的部队迅速地组成了方阵,但在这之前俄军就已经冲到了,法军用火力击退了冲锋。得到新加强的俄军骑兵对着第84线列步兵团发动了进攻,而后者也开火回应。俄军骑兵每刻都在增加,他们成功地对第8轻步兵团实施了冲击。欧仁在俄军骑兵的一次冲锋中来到了前线,如同Lejeune说的那样,当他在队伍中的时候很可能已经被俄国人认出,哥萨克为了俘虏他蜂拥而上。

Prince Eugene had no other recourse but to take refuge inside the square of the 84th Line, where Colonel Jean-Gaudens-Claude Pegot, who commanded the regiment, assured him that he was as safe inside the square as in one of his palaces. At the same time. General Anthouard and Colonel Millot redeployed their batteries to face the new threat and began firing upon the Russian cavalry. Eugene also dispatched orders to Grouchy to send additional cavalry from his corps against the Russians. 'It was about 11am,' wrote Lieutenant Combe of the 8th Chasseurs a Cheval, 'when General Grouchy's adjutant reached us ordering us to move to the left and cross the road upstream from Borodino ...' Anthouard noted that a large part of the III Cavalry Corps was deployed at that time, while Griois referred to just one brigade (the 11th) and Cerrini acknowledged only the Chasseurs a Cheval regiments of Chastel's division.According to Laugier of the Italian Guard at that very moment, we were fording the Kolocha, and, while preserving the greatest calm, were hastening our steps, the more ardent for a rumour that the Prince himself was in danger. Meanwhile, the Russian cavalry, growing more numerous, renewed its charges against the squares of the Croat's 8th Light, of the 84th and the 92nd Line ..

欧仁亲王没有别的办法,只能在第84线列步兵团的方阵里抵抗,该团的指挥官Jean-Gaudens-Claude Pegot向他保证:这里会像您的行宫一样安全!与此同时,Anthouard 将军和 Millot上校重新部署了他们的炮兵,法军的火雨向俄军骑兵倾泻而下。欧仁也命令Grouchy派出他的附属骑兵进行反击。第8猎骑兵团的Combe少尉写到:“约在上午11点,Grouchy将军的副官传达了命令,让我们穿过博罗季诺下方的道路,向着左翼运动。”Anthouard 注意到第3骑兵军的大队展开阵形,但是Griois说只有一个旅(第11旅),Cerrini认为只有Chastel师的一个猎骑兵团。根据意大利近卫军Laugier的说法,他们在那时候渡过了Kolocha河,保持镇定,加速前进,亲王深陷危难的传闻也越来越多。与此同时更多的俄军骑兵对克罗地亚第8轻步兵团、第84和92线列步兵团的方阵发起了新的冲锋。

Clausewitz, accompanying Uvarov suggested in vain that the ardllery should first open upon the [enemy in squares]'. But, Uvarov and 'the Russian officers feared that they would then retire and escape capture. The Hussars of the Guard were therefore advanced, and ordered to charge. They made three ineffectual attacks; the infantry lost neither their composure nor their ranks and returned a steady fire. The Hussars retired, as usually happens in such cases, some thirty paces, and withdrew out of fire. General Uwarow [sic] then discontinued these not very brilhant attempts and caused the artillery to open; at the first discharge, the enemy retired over the defile [and] the whole affairs then came to an end.

陪着Uvarov的克劳塞维茨建议炮兵先于骑兵攻击,可是没有被采纳。Uvarov等俄国军官害怕敌人会选择撤退,让他们丧失抓俘虏的功绩。近卫骠骑兵随后前进并接到冲击命令。俄军进行了三次徒劳的冲击;法军步兵保持镇静,阵型不乱,用坚定的火力回击。骠骑兵不得不后退,就像往常那样,在大约三十步的地方脱离地方射程。Uvarov将军停止了这不明智的行动并命令炮兵开火;在第一波射击后,敌人越过狭谷撤退,战斗结束了。

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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 18:18:11 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 王法拉 于 2013-8-30 16:08 编辑

147页


Uvarov's report adds some details to Clausewitz's account. The attack was made
despite disadvantageous terrain since we had to cross a deep ravine and a rivulet and, after ascending the opposite bank, to engage the enemy, with the [enemy occupied] village [of Borodino] to our left and the woods full of enemy troops to the right. Despite these difficulties, the attack was carried out in front of the entire army with an unexpected success. The enemy was routed and the battery barely managed to escape, but its two guns were seized by the Yelisavetgradskii Hussars; if not for such unfavourable terrain, they would have been removed at once. The enemy suffered considerable losses during the pursuit.

Uvarov的报告为克劳塞维茨的记述补充了部分细节。尽管攻击在种种不利下进行——俄军必须要渡过一条深河,然后爬上对岸接战;法军占据的博罗季诺村在左面,右面的林木中也布满了敌人。尽管有这些困难,这次行动还是在全军面前实施,并取得了意想不到的胜利。敌人被驱逐,炮兵只能设法逃走,但Yelisavetgradskii骠骑兵还是夺下了两门敌人火炮——如果不是因为这里的不利地形,它们本可以快速撤走的。俄军在追击中也给敌人造成了大量伤亡。

Further research reveals that the first attack was entrusted to Major General Vasili Oriov-Denisov, who led the Life Guard Hussar and Cossack Regiments and the Yelisavetgradskii Hussars; they were followed by the Life Guard Dragoon, Uhlan, and Nezhinskii Dragoon Regiments, supported by the 2nd Horse Company.'^^^ The Russian charge, however, faced stiff resistance. Ornano's cavalry crossed the dam across the Voina, which was protected by several squares organized by the 8th Light, 1st Croat Regiment, 84th and 92nd Line. The 6th, 8th and 25th Chasseurs a Cheval of Chastel's division were moved to the left bank of the Kolocha, later followed by additional troops from Grouchy's III Cavalry Corps and the Italian Guard.

进一步的研究披露,Vasili Oriov-Denisov指挥的近卫骠骑兵、哥萨克团、Yelisavetgradskii骠骑兵团是第一攻击波;近卫龙骑兵、枪骑兵、Nezhinskii龙骑兵团和第2骑炮连紧随其后。俄军的冲锋遭到了顽强的抵抗。Ornano的的骑兵从第8轻步兵团、第1克罗地亚团、第84和92线列步兵团方阵守卫的大坝渡过Voina河。Chastel师的第6、第8 和第25猎骑兵运动到Kolocha河左岸,增援的Grouchy第3骑兵军和意大利近卫军随之跟进。

During their attacks, the Russian cavalrymen suffered high casualties attacking the squares. Bavarian officer von Muraldt saw the enemy cavalry [...] implementing its plan. By the time the voltigeurs reached us, the wood was already in enemy hands. And hardly had the voltigeurs drawn up to our left, within range of it than individual sharpshooters from the Guard Cossacks were already visible on its fringe. As soon as the enemy facing us saw we had been outflanked, he crossed the Kolotcha [sic], everywhere shallow and easily forded, and, protected by his artillery, attacked our front. Every moment we were waiting for the order to advance against him; but whether our general's attention was mainly directed towards the attack threatening our flank or for some other reason no such order came; and we could only wait the enemy, who was coming at us flat out. Not until the Russians were 200 paces away did the order come: 'Carbines up! Fire!' And hardly had we fired out carbines - mostly without effect (as is usual with cavalry) - than we were attacked and over-thrown by two hussar regiments At the same time, the Guard Cossacks were advancing out of the wood, overriding both our voltigeur companies, and striking into our flank. Attacked from front and in flank, and on such utterly unfavourable terrain, the many of us took to our heels. For a moment, generals, officers and soldiers swirled around in a single confused mass. Everyone was spurring his horse to get out of this jam as quick as ever he could ...

俄军骑兵在攻击法军方阵的时候遭到了重大伤亡。巴伐利亚军官von Muraldt 看到敌军骑兵执行着他们的计划。当法国散兵到达我们这里的时候,敌人已经拿下了树丛,使他们不得不在我们左翼停了下来,此时林木边缘的哥萨克神射手都隐隐可见。当我们接战的时候,敌人已经迂回过来,他们渡过Kolotcha河的每一处浅滩,并且有炮兵支援进攻。我们时刻等待着反击的命令;但不知是我们将军把注意力集中于敌人进攻带来的威胁还是其他的原因,命令却一直未下达;我们只能等待,而敌人正向我们全速冲来。俄军距离我们200步左右时,命令下达了:“举枪!开火!”在射击还没完成的时候——基本上也没有多少效果(这对骑兵来说是正常情况)——两个俄国骠骑兵团就淹没了我们。与此同时,近卫哥萨克也冲出了树丛,击溃了散兵连并突入我们侧翼。在如此不利的地形下遭到正面和侧面的双重打击,很多人都选择了脚下抹油。那时候,上到将军下至一兵,混杂成大队人流。每个人都狠踢马刺,一心想着离开这个要命的拥堵之地。
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 18:21:12 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 王法拉 于 2013-8-30 11:41 编辑

148页

Uvarov's charge forced Bavarian commander Preysing to order 'one of my brigades to move forward onto a near hill to support the infantry. My troops barely reached it when they were charged by several enemy Regiments' Bavarian officer Wiedemann recalled 'several Cossack sotnyas that made a feint attack, brandishing sabres and firing, against the [2] 1st Chevau-leger Brigade'. Another participant saw several sotnyas of Cossacks and Dragoons attacking the 21st Brigade and, although they were fired upon by Captain Wiedemann's battery and another French battery deployed behind this brigade, they executed a vigorous charge against it. They were hardheartedly met by carabiniers, who opened fire at a close range and forced them to retreat.

Uvarov的冲击迫使巴伐利亚指挥官Preysing调整命令。巴伐利亚军官Wiedemann回忆道“我所在的旅为了支援步兵前进占据附近的山头。 我的部队刚到了那里就遭到数个团的敌军冲锋,几百哥萨克发起了佯攻,他们挥舞着马刀和火把向第1轻骑兵旅冲去”。另一位亲历者看到数百哥萨克和龙骑兵正在攻击第21旅,尽管俄军遭到了Wiedemann和21旅后方一个法军炮排的火力覆盖,但他们仍然进行了顽强的冲击。法军则以近距离冷酷的弹雨迎接俄军,迫使他们撤退。

The Yelisavetgradskii Hussar Regiment was repelled and it was pursued by the Bavarian regiments, who were, in turn, charged by the Life Guard Uhlan Regiment, which was later commended for 'halting enemy cavalry and infantry columns that sought to attack and pierce the [Russian] line'."*" Artillery officer Radozhitsky, watching from the vicinity of the Gorki Heights, was  thrilled to see as our cavalry moved on the opposite riverbank in long lines of red and blue Hussars and Uhlans and then charged the French cavalry, driving it beyond Borodino; then it made an attack on an artillery battery and the Yelisavetgradskii Hussar Regiment seized two guns. But four enemy infantry regiments, deployed in squares, moved against our cavalry, which attacked each of them but was forced to retreat after being unable to break them.

Yelisavetgradskii骠骑兵团被巴伐利亚团击退了,后者紧紧地追赶着敌人,却遭遇接到“阻止敌军步骑兵攻击我军阵线”命令的俄军枪骑兵团反冲击。在高地附近的炮兵军官Radozhitsky激动地看着俄军骑兵渡过河流,红蓝相间的骠骑兵与枪骑兵列成长队,冲向法军骑兵,把他们赶出了博罗季诺;然后他们对一个炮兵阵地进行了攻击,Yelisavetgradskii骠骑兵团夺取了两门火炮。但是敌人的四个步兵团结成了方阵对我军进行反击,俄军被迫后撤,虽然对法军进行了攻击,但不能击退他们。

Not far from Radozhitsky, Mitarevsky also observed the fighting but his recollections are less favourably towards Uvarov's men. Mitarevsky observed as our cavalry quickly advanced and then charged forward [...] A thought flashed in my mind - as squares would discharge their muskets, our cavalry would charge and overwhelm them, and then it would be easier to deal with them. Yet, it proved quite different in reality: the cavalry approached [squares] to a musket range and then quickly turned back, without the [enemy] squares even firing. 'Did you see that? asked our staff officer, who just approached us, 'And there goes their attack!' We then made a few disparaging comments about them.

距Radozhitsky不远的Mitarevsky也目睹了这场战斗,但是他的回忆对Uvarov手下评价不高。当Mitarevsky看到俄军骑兵快速前进并发起冲锋的时候,他认为敌人方阵会丢盔弃甲,被俄军轻易收拾掉。但是现实却并不那样美好:骑兵一到步枪射程就后退了,敌人的方阵甚至没开火!“你看到了么!这也算进攻?”刚刚赶到的参谋质问道。我们心中都对这些骑兵产生了蔑视。

Notwithstanding Mitarevsky's criticism, the Russian cavalry did make several charges and sought to cross the river over the dam, but its efforts were thwarted by the French squares and the canister fire which thwarted two Russian crossing attempts.

尽管有Mitarevsky的批评,但俄军骑兵的确进行了数次冲锋并且从大坝上渡过河流,可是俄国人的努力被法军方阵所阻挡了,猛烈地炮火挫败了俄军的两次渡河尝试。

Uvarov and Platov then deployed the 2nd Horse Company of Lieutenant Colonel Goring to engage 'the enemy battery that was set up on the edge of the woods and acted against our Corps'. After a short artillery duel, that battery was forced to retreat but this minor success failed to bring any breakthrough for the Russians.

Uvarov 和 Platov派出了 Goring中校的第2骑炮连来对付那些“部署在林木边缘反击我们的法国炮兵”。在短暂的炮战之后,法军被迫后退,但这个微小的胜利并没有给俄军带来多少帮助。

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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 18:24:51 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 王法拉 于 2013-8-30 11:44 编辑

149页

A few miles south of the fight, Roth von Schreckenstein was initially concerned by the enemy move that 'seemed to be a serious flanking attack'. He saw several officers of the 7th Cuirassier Division, among them Colonel Leyser (of the Saxon Gardes du Corps) and brigade commanders Thielemann and Lepel, discussing this new development. Noting that no enemy infantry or artillery was committed to the attack, they quickly agreed that 'this movement, which initially was quite threatening, would have no serious effect'.Clausewitz, who was 'convinced from the beginning that this diversion could produce no result', noted in his memoirs that a diversion by 2,500 horse could not possibly have a decisive influence on a batde delivered on one side by 130,000 men; it could at best put a spoke in the wheel of their plans for a moment, and astonish them more or less.


在战斗南方几英里处,Roth von Schreckenstein开始认为敌军的行动是一场大规模的侧翼出击。他看到第7胸甲骑兵师的几个军官,萨克森Gardes du 军的Leyser上校、旅指挥官Thielemann和Lepel,在讨论新这新的状况。当注意到这次咋看来势汹汹的突击没有步炮协同后,他们认为俄军不过如此。“克劳塞维茨最初确信,俄军不会在这个方向收获战果”,从回忆中看出,他不认为2500骑兵的突击会对敌方的13万大军产生决定性的影响;最好的结果不过是拖延下敌人的行动,顺带震慑他们罢了。

It was already afternoon and the Russian Army - struggling to hold ground on the left flank and the centre, and with most of its reserves already committed - was in urgent need of respite. Uvarov's raid might have delivered it but, as we have seen, it quickly stalled. Still, as Clausewitz suggested, 'the Russians could contemplate no offensive movement other than that confided to General Uwarow [and so] all eyes were now turned to that officer'. Kutuzov sent several adjutants and staff officers to 'see whether anything could possibly be done in this quarter',and Colonel Toll, together with General Ozharovsky, also visited Uvarov 'in order to find means so that the raid, or to be precise, diversion, attempted by [Uvarov's] forces, had more noticeable effect on the events of that day. However, everyone came to conclusion that it was impossible to do.

时间已经到了下午,中央和左翼的俄军在拼死保卫他们的阵地,大部分后备军已经投入战斗,他们迫切地需要喘息重整。Uvarov的突击似乎起到了作用,但是就像我们看到的,效果并没有持续很久。 像克劳塞维茨暗示的“俄国人已经不考虑别的进攻行动,只是希望Uwarow能有所作为,此时他吸引了所有人的注意力。”  库图佐夫派出了数个副官和参谋去了解“现在我们能做些什么”, Toll上校和Ozharovsky将军也一起去拜访了Uvarov,所以这次Uvarov的突击——或者说是转移敌人注意的行动也就成了那天最引人注意的事情。但是,所有人得出的结论都指出那是个不可能的任务。


Clausewitz agreed with Toll that all rode back with the convicdon that General Uwarow could effect nothing. It both seemed no trifling matter to pass this brook under the fire of the enemy and so many troops were seen standing idle as reserves on the other side that it was plainly impossible for 2,500 horse to affect the result of the batde by any effort in that quarter.


克劳塞维茨同意Toll的看法,带着Uwarow将军对战局无能为力的证据骑马返回。看起来在敌人火力威胁下渡河不是件容易的事,并且敌人还有如此多的力量作为预备队,另一方面,此时2500骑兵显然不可能影响战斗结果。

The Russian cavalry forces, meantime, became split after Platov continued his movement westward to threaten the French rear and baggage train. As the Russian regular cavalry made its futile charges on a dam, the Cossack Ataman 'was a quarter of a league to the right of Uwarow, and looking for a passage over the marshy stream [Voina]'."^^^ Around noon, his troops had at length found a passage not far from Loginovo and quickly moved across the Voina, where Platov ordered his men 'to proceed to the right, and, attacking the enemy flank and rear, make a rapid attack against the enemy'. Lieutenant Flotow soon saw some Russian troops secretly moving towards a village [Bezzubovo] on our left flank; the village was defended by four companies and additional troops were sent to support them. But they were not sufficient to repel a superior enemy [...] and were forced to retreat beyond defile.

同时,俄军骑兵兵力也因为Platov向西威胁法军后卫和辎重而变的分散。 在俄军骑兵对大坝的例行冲击被击败后,Ataman派出四分之一的人到右面的Uwarow那里,寻找渡河通道。大约在中午,他的部队在距离Loginovo不远处找到了渡河点并迅速越过了Voina河,Platov命令部队继续向右侧运动,攻击敌人后卫和侧翼,朝他们发动突击。Flotow中尉不久看到一些俄军秘密地向左翼的Bezzubovo运动;Bezzubovo的守军有四个连,援军也随之派出。但是他们仍不足以击退占优势的敌人,被迫撤过了狭谷。


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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 18:26:49 | 显示全部楼层
150页

The Cossack manoeuvre threatened the left flank of Prince Eugene's troops opposite Uvarov's squadrons near the dam, and Platov reported that 'the enemy [probably Italian Chasseurs], located beyond the woods, was routed by the rapid attack of the [Cossack] Regiments and fled leaving many casualties behind'. Among those fleeing were the Italian Chasseurs a Cheval of Villata's 13th Brigade, who were rescued by the Bavarian troops of Major General von Preysing-Moos' 22nd Light Cavalry Brigade. The 4th and 5th Chevau-leger engaged the Cossacks and were supported by a two-gun battery under Lieutenant Belli de Pino that fired canister at the charging Cossacks. However, General Ornano soon ordered the battery to withdraw fearing the enemy might capture it."

哥萨克的行动威胁到了欧仁部队的左翼,而后者当时正面对大坝附近的Uvarov ,Platov报告到在林木前的敌人(可能是意大利轻骑兵)已经被哥萨克的突击驱逐,损失惨重。在逃跑的部队中,Villata第13旅的意大利猎骑兵被Preysing-Moos少将的巴伐利亚第22轻骑兵旅所救。第4和第5猎兵团在Belli de Pino中尉的炮兵排(两门炮)支援下对抗哥萨克。然而Ornano不久便命令炮兵撤退以避免大炮被俄军俘获。

It is unclear how far Platov's Cossacks advanced into the rear of the French Army. Platov reported that 'Colonel Balabin, acting on the flank and partially in the rear of the enemy, harassed and slew the enemy, capturing plenty of prisoners ...' Soviet scholars claimed the Cossacks went as far as Valuyevo, which was in the rear of the Grand Army.

Platov的哥萨克到底前进到了离法军后卫多远的位置,这并不清楚。Platov报告到“Balabin上校打击了敌军后方,抓获了大量俘虏……”苏联学者声称哥萨克最远到达了大军团后方的Valuyevo。

The news of the Russian appearance on the western bank of the Voina reached Napoleon just as he was about to order his Young Guard to advance in support of troops fighting near Semeyonovskoye and the Grand Redoubt, but 'a heavy fire beyond the stream [Voina], out of the brushwood, upon the left wing'^^^ made him postpone this decision. The Russians across the field could see 'commotion on the heights extending from Borodino to the Kolotsk Monastery [... ] and it was remarkable to see how hastily were many of the camp tents removed Unaware of the strength of the enemy raiding party. Napoleon realized that it could spread confusion among his troops and threaten his baggage train and lines of communication.

当俄军出现在Voina河西岸的消息传到拿破仑那里时,他正准备派出青年近卫军支援Semeyonovskoye和大多面堡附近的战斗,可是Voina河边、树丛、法军左翼激烈的交火使他不得不暂时搁下这个打算。俄军跨过原野,看到“高地上的骚乱蔓延到博罗季诺和Kolotsk Monastery,因没有料到敌军的突击,许多营帐被匆忙转移。拿破仑意识到这样下去混乱会在军队中弥漫,而后勤和交通线也岌岌可危。

On his orders, troops were dispatched to support Eugene, though it is unclear exactly which units were involved. Russian scholar Popov suggested the 1st Chevau-leger Lancier de la Garde Regiment, but Chlapowski noted that the unit did not participate in the fighting that day, while Krasinski and Zaluski argued that Napoleon sent only a squadron of this regiment, which was assigned to his escort. Furthermore, Dautancourt referred to Colbert's brigade, consisting of the 2nd Chevau-leger Lancier de la Garde Regiment (Dutch), while General Anthouard mentioned the chasseurs a cheval units. Napoleon then went himself to investigate what was happening on the left flank. Although many French memoirs fail to record this trip, Dautancourt and Pelet tell us that Napoleon travelled to the Kolocha river and, after making a quick observation, returned to his headquarters near Shevardino.

根据拿破仑的命令,增援欧仁的部队被派出了,尽管援军包括哪些部队还不清楚。俄国学者Popov暗示是第1轻骑兵Lancier de la Garde团,但是Chlapowski认为这支部队并没有参与当天的战斗,Krasinski 和Zaluski则认为拿破仑仅仅派出了担任护驾任务的一个中队。此外,Dautancourt提到,第2 轻骑兵Lancier de la Garde 团(荷兰)属于Colbert的旅,而Anthouard将军提到的是猎骑兵单位。拿破仑随后亲自前往左翼调查。尽管许多法国亲历者漏掉了这段回忆,Dautancourt 和 Pelet告诉我们拿破仑来到了Kolocha河,经过短暂的观察,他返回了Shevardino附近的司令部。

One can contrast this testimony with the claims of many Russian/ Soviet historians that Napoleon personally led one of the Guard divisions to reinforce his left flank and remained there for hours to stabilize it. Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky claims that Napoleon remained with Eugene on the left flank until 3pm and his absence from the headquarters at Shevardino gave the Russians a breathing space in the centre and on the left. Danilevsky wrote: 'Those who fought at Borodino certainly remember that minute when the determination of enemy attacks declined along the entire line and the firepower became considerably weaker and we, as someone justly noted, "could breath freely [at last.]'" Eugene Tarle, described Napoleon 'flying like an arrow' to the left flank, where, as Garnich and Beskrovny agreed, he remained for two hours."

可以把证词和许多苏联和俄国史学家声称做个对比,即拿破仑本人指挥一个近卫师去增援左翼并花了数个小时来巩固阵地。Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky声称拿破仑在左翼和欧仁一直待到下午三点,在他离开Shevardino指挥部的时间里,俄军左翼和中央获得了喘息的机会。Danilevsky写到“在博罗季诺战斗过的人一定记得,那时敌人攻击的决心全线消退,炮火也显著减弱,我们终于能喘口气了”。 Eugene Tarle说拿破仑像箭一样赶到了左翼,Garnich 和 Beskrovny也认同拿破仑在左翼待了两个小时这一说法。
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 18:28:39 | 显示全部楼层
151页

Back at the dam, Ciausewitz saw that, with Platov attacking their left flank, the French troop immediately in our front feared to be locked in the morass and made a side niovement. The Cossack Regiment of the Guard attached to Uwarow's Corps could stand it no longer: like a rocket with its tail, they were over the dam like lightning and into the wood to join their brethren.

回到坝前的战场,克劳塞维茨看到,因为Platov攻击了敌军左翼,当前的法军立刻陷入了恐慌。Uwarow军的哥萨克团已经按耐不住,他们如同迅速越过了大坝,像闪电一样去支援林木中战斗的兄弟们。

They were followed by the Yelisavetgradskii Hussars. Opposing them, Colonel Seyssel led his 4th Chevau-leger to help the Italian Chasseurs against the Cossacks, while Colonel Gaddum's Bavarians of the 5th Chevau-leger hurried to protect the battery. The front lines of Seyssel's troops became disordered after the fleeing Italians passed through them, and were soon under Cossack attacks from left flank and rear. To face them, Major Sigmund Bieber of the 4th Chevau-leger recalled seeing the second line of his division, which consisted of the squadrons of Zandt and Hortling, turn back and fire their carbines. However, this did not help and Seyssel's entire brigade was soon forced to retreat behind a square of the Italian Guard. It quickly rallied there and charged the [Russians] who reached the square, and drove them back across the stream with heavy casualties.

Yelisavetgradskii骠骑兵紧随其后。在敌人方面,Seyssel上校指挥他的第4轻骑兵队协助意大利轻骑兵反击哥萨克,与此同时属于Gaddum上校的第5轻骑兵队的巴伐利亚人也火速赶来保护大炮。意大利人的溃兵打乱了Seyssel先头部队的阵列,哥萨克也从左面和后方杀来。第4轻骑兵队的Sigmund Bieber少校回忆道,为了进行反击,他队伍的第二列中的Zandt 和 Hortling中队返身杀来,用卡宾枪进行射击。可是这也不能阻止Seyssel旅的迅速失败,他们被迫退回到意大利近卫军的方阵之后。他们迅速地重整了队形,然后向尾随而来的俄军发动了冲击,俄军在付出惨重损失后被赶回了对岸。

Flotow also recalled that 'to avoid being isolated, [Bavarian] brigades had to retreat towards the approaching infantry square', while the artilleryman, Captain Wiedemann, saw 'the Italian chevau-leger regiment driven back to [his] Bavarian battery', thus preventing him from opening fire. 'After the [Italians] passed between the guns,' Wiedemann recalled, 'it was already too late for us to open fire against the enemy, who was so at such close distance that the battery had to retreat immediately.' As his subordinates began to remove their guns, one of the limbers broke down and Wiedemann rushed to help remove it. However, as he brought new limber a cannon-ball fired by a French battery, which bombarded the Russian cavalry, killed the horse and made it impossible to save the gun. The soldiers, who remained with me to remove the piece, were now too close to the cavalry melee as the mass of the Russian cavalry advance against us on a wide front.

Flotow也回忆道“为了避免被孤立,巴伐利亚旅不得不向步兵方阵撤退”,与此同时,炮兵上尉Wiedemann看见“意大利轻骑兵团跑向了巴伐利亚炮兵“,这使得后者无法开火。”当意大利人跑出我们的射界之后,敌人已经离我们很近了,开火阻击成为泡影,我们必须立刻撤退。“在他的部下转移火炮的时候,一台拖炮车出了问题,Wiedemann冲过去帮忙推车。可是当他找到新拖炮车的时候,一颗轰击俄军的法国炮弹打死了挽马,这门炮不得不放弃了。大量俄军骑兵从宽阔的正面向我们冲来,他们离我们太近了,和我一起留下来推炮的士兵都能感受到他们马刀的寒光。

Captain Wiedemann's men quickly retreated but were caught up by the Yelisavetgradskii Hussars (some of them armed with lances) and Cossacks, some of whom charged the Captain himself: 'One Cossack would have certainly pierced me with his lance if not for an Italian Chasseurs a Cheval who threw him off the horse at the very moment when the [Cossack] aimed his deadly lance at me.' Wiedemann then moved his guns towards the units of the Italian Guard and Delzon's division, which formed squares to repel the enemy charges. His battery had several guns damaged and Wiedemann could utilize only two remaining pieces, which he quickly led to support the counter-attacking Bavarian cavalry."

Wiedemann上尉的手下立刻撤退,可还是被Yelisavetgradskii骠骑兵(部分装备了骑枪)和哥萨克赶上,有几个俄军向上尉冲来,他回忆道:“如果不是一个意大利猎骑兵在那一瞬间把他拽下马,那哥萨克的骑枪就会戳中我了”。 Wiedemann随后把他的火炮移向了正结成方阵反击敌军冲锋的Delzon师和意大利近卫。他的炮兵排损失了数门火炮,能用的只剩下两门,他立刻带着这两门火炮前去支援巴伐利亚骑兵。
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 18:30:38 | 显示全部楼层
152页

Among the Italian guardsmen Wiedemann observed was Laugier, who found himself 'face to face with the enemy cavalry. Formed in squares, we advanced in echelon to meet the Russians, who by now reached the Italian batteries, extinguished their fire and overthrown Delzon's regiments'. Supported by the Itahan Guard, the Bavarian and Itahan cavahymen counter-attacked. Combe saw the 6th Hussars and the 8th Chasseurs making successful charges against the Cossacks, who quickly retreated while Dautancourt had his men search thick bushes and woods to capture any remaining Russians and his men did seize several Cossacks.Platov's men retreated across the dam on the Voina and were protected by a Russian battery that engaged the pursuing Bavarian cavalry. Prince Eugene, realizing that the enemy raid was effectively over, turned his Guard units back to prepare for the assault on Rayevsky's Redoubt.

Laugier正在Wiedemann所看到的意大利近卫军中,他们“和敌人骑兵面对面,结成方阵,排好梯队,前进迎击那些冲向意大利炮兵的俄军,这些敌人已经压制了Delzon师的团队”在意大利近卫军的支援下,来自巴伐利亚和意大利的骑兵发起了反冲击。Combe看到第6骠骑兵和第8轻骑兵对哥萨克进行了成功的冲锋,让敌人立刻进行撤退,与此同时,Dautancourt带着他的手下在浓密的树丛中追捕残余的俄军,而且也的确抓到了几个哥萨克俘虏。Platov的手下撤过Voina河上的大坝,在一个俄国炮兵排的支援下和追击来的巴伐利亚骑兵对峙。欧仁亲王在意识到敌人的突击已经毫无威胁后,把他的近卫部队调回来准备对Rayevsky多面堡的突击。

On the Russian side, Uvarov understood that the French would soon try to divert some of their forces from the left flank to the centre, so he sought to maintain pressure on Napoleon's flank. Uvarov later reported: 'I sought to remain in my position and, through my movements, to trick the enemy into believing that I would make another attack.' He continued his feint attacks until 3pm when he finally received Kutuzov's order to return to his initial battle position. Clausewitz recalled that the Russian cavalry retreated between 4pm and 5pm and assumed its position behind the Gorki Heights. As for Platov's Cossacks, some of them seem to have returned to their initial position, while others remained on the western bank of the Kolocha, since Platov reported that his troops harassed the enemy until late that night."^^® Liprandi, who seems to have consulted some Cossack participants, noted that as Platov was withdrawing his troops, he ordered his regimental commanders to take note of the terrain and surroundings, in case they had to operate there at night."

从俄国方面,Uvarov认为法军很快就会从左翼向中央调集部队,于是他决定对拿破仑保持压力。Uvarov后来报告:“我想留在那里,通过我的运动,让法军误认为我还会发起另一次进攻”。佯攻一直持续到下午3点,直到库图佐夫传令让他返回攻击发起位置。克劳塞维茨回忆道俄军骑兵在下午4点至5点撤退,在Gorki高地后隐蔽起来。一些Platov的哥萨克好像返回了初始阵地,其他的留在Kolocha河西岸,后来Platov报告说他的部队对法军进行了整夜袭扰。Liprandi似乎请教了一些参战哥萨克,提到Platov撤回部队的时候,让他的团级军官留意地型和环境,以备夜间行动。

Thus ended the Russian cavalry raid against the French left flank. Compared to other sectors, the fighting here was less intense and both sides lost a couple of hundred men. The Life Guard Hussar Regiment had twelve killed and seventeen wounded, the Yelisavetgradskii Hussars had five killed, fourteen wounded and twenty missing, the Life Guard Cossacks lost three killed and thirty-two wounded, the Life Guard Uhlan and the Nezhinskii Dragoons had no losses at all.^^^ On the French side, the most substantial loss was the death of General of Brigade Leonard Huard de St Aubin, commanding the 1st Brigade of the 13th Division, who was killed by a canister shot while commanding his infantry.

俄军骑兵对法军左翼的突击结束了。和别的地方相比,这里的战斗并不激烈,双方都损失了数百人。骠骑兵团有12人阵亡,17人受伤,Yelisavetgradskii骠骑兵有5人阵亡,14人受伤,另有20人失踪,哥萨克有3人阵亡,32人受伤,枪骑兵和Nezhinskii龙骑兵全然无损。在法国方面,最大的损失是第13师第1旅指挥官Leonard Huard de St Aubin战死,他在指挥步兵的时候中弹身亡。

The purpose and outcome of the raid have been debated, often bitterly, for the past 190 years. Russian generals and staff officers were more disapproving of the whole enterprise than junior officers and the rank-and-file, and participants were, in general, more critical than later historians, especially those of the Soviet era. Although poorly implemented, it should be said that the raid did produce an important result: it diverted French forces at a crucial moment, when they were preparing for the assault on the Russian centre. The two or three hour delay it caused allowed the Russians to rally and regroup, while the French troops, especially Latour-Maubourg's cavalry, suffered under the fire of the Russian artillery.

这次突击的目的和结果在过去的190年间常常被尖酸地争论。俄国将军和参谋比中下级军官士兵更不赞同这次进攻,而参与者对它的批评也比后世学者(特别是苏联时代)来得更多。尽管执行的很拙劣,但是它的确对战局产生了重要影响:在法军准备进攻俄军中央阵地的时候,分散了法军的实力。在争取到的这两三个小时中,俄军得以恢复重组,而此时法军,特别是Latour-Maubourg的骑兵则暴露在俄军炮火之下。
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 18:32:58 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 王法拉 于 2013-8-29 14:22 编辑

153页-154页相关内容

Among those praising the raid, Friedrich von Schubert went as far as to claim that the manoeuvre 'produced tremendous results and added certain indecision to enemy attacks. Napoleon's own tent was quickly removed and his Guard was organized into square. The Kolotsk Monastery, where the main [French] hospital and infirmary was established, was taken over by panic.' On the opposite side, Clausewitz, as we have seen, was very critical of the entire venture.Many senior Russian officers believed the raid had the potential for tremendous success but was mishandled. They shared Clausewitz's and Lowenstern's accusations against Uvarov for sluggish performance and failure to take full advantage of the manoeuvre. Barclay de Tolly believed that: 'if this attack were carried out with greater firmness and not limited to only wearing out the enemy, it would have had brilliant consequences'. Nikolai Muravyev was certain that, if well executed, this 'surprise attack could have decided the battle outcome to our favour' and a similar opinion was voiced by Norov, among others. Furthermore, Golitsyn, who served as ordinance officer to Kutuzov, recalled that Kutuzov coldly greeted Uvarov upon his return from the raid and, hearing his report, told him: 'I know everything and may God forgive you for it!'"^^"^ The fact that Platov and Uvarov were the only generals not nominated for rewards after the battle speaks volumes about the Commander-in-Chief's dissatisfaction with their actions. In December 1812, Kutuzov even wrote to Alexander, stating that he could not recommend Uvarov for any rewards, since he failed to carry out the raid successfully. As for Platov and his Cossacks, Kutuzov told the Emperor that 'they did not fight that day as such'.

根据那些袭击的报告,Friedrich von Schubert宣称这次行动产生了惊人的效果并且让敌人的攻击更加谨慎犹豫。拿破仑自己的军帐立刻被移到了近卫军方阵里。法军的主要医疗基地 Kolotsk Monastery 也已经被恐慌所笼罩。在另一方面,就像我们看到的那样,克劳塞维茨对这次冒险指责颇多。许多俄国高级军官都认为这次突击本来可以取得巨大的成功,仅仅是没有实施好而已。他们用克劳塞维茨和Lowenstern的指责来反驳Uvarov的消极表现,认为这样丧失了进一步发展胜利的机会。巴克莱相信:“如果这次进攻由我们的主力来发起,而不仅仅作为牵制疲惫敌军之举,那我们将会取得伟大的胜利”。 Nikolai Muravyev坚信如果这次突击能得到良好的执行,那将会把胜利的天平倾向俄军,Norov和其他人也持同样的观点。此外,当时担任库图佐夫传令官的Golitsyn回忆道库图佐夫冷漠地迎接了撤出战场的Uvarov并听取了他的报告,他对Uvarov说:“我知道所有的事,但愿上帝会饶恕你!”事实上,只有Platov 和Uvarov没有在战斗结束后得到嘉奖,因为指挥部并不满意他们在战斗中的表现。在1812年12月,库图佐夫在给Alexander的信中提道,因为Uvarov的失败突击,他不会给他任何嘉奖。至于Platov和他的哥萨克,库图佐夫告诉沙皇“他们那天几乎没有战斗”。

A gallant officer, Uvarov saw his reputation somewhat tarnished at Borodino. Nevertheless, he served with distinction in the 1813-14 campaigns and was promoted to the rank of general for his actions at Leipzig. Platov's case is interesting because participants criticized him for failing to break through to Napoleon's baggage train, which would have had a major impact on the course of the battle. The Ataman had already established himself as a capable leader of Cossacks, but was also known for arrogance, a tendency to bicker with other generals, and a fondness for alcohol. A. Muravyev noted that one of the reasons for Platov's poor performance at Borodino was his hatred of Barclay de Tolly, to whom he was formally subordinated. Yet, other participants reveal that there was also one more, often overlooked, factor. Nikolai Muravyev blamed the failure of the raid on the inept orders and intoxicated condition of Count Platov [...] who was drunk that day [...] [and] Kutuzov refused to give him overall command [of the raid]; the abilities of Uvarov, who was [the] next senior officer after Platov, were mediocre and well known to everyone ...

Uvarov自认他勇敢的名声在博罗季诺受到了污损。然而他继续挂着奖章活跃在1813-1814年的战役中,并因在莱比锡的战功而得到晋升。Platov的情况很有意思,因为参战者认为他没有完成切断拿破仑补给线这一至关重要的任务。Platov早已在哥萨克中树立了领袖地位,但同时也因傲慢、与别的将领争吵以及嗜酒著称。A. Muravyev注解道,Platov在博罗季诺的拙劣表现与他对前上级巴克莱的憎恨不无关系。但是参战者们揭示了另一个常被人忽视的原因。Nikolai Muravyev将突击失败的原因归责于命令的拙劣和Platov的醉酒,而且库图佐夫并没有赋予他全局指挥的权力;而他的行动副手Uvarov,则是人所共知的能力平庸。

Similar testimony can be found in the personal journal of Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky, who recorded that Platov was 'in a drunken stupor [...] which, among other things, made Kutuzov to tell me [...] that this was the first time he had seen a full general dead drunk in the midst of a decisive battle.

类似的证据可以在Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky的个人日记里找到,他把Platov记录为“状态昏昏沉沉,如同喝醉一般”,通过别的事情,库图佐夫告诉还告诉Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky ,这是他第一次见到一个上将在决战的时候还喝得烂醉。


It was natural, then, that when the first histories of the battle were written attempts were made to gloss over these awkward and unpleasant incidents' Historians and some participants tried to suppress or falsify the events of the Platov-Uvarov raid. Thus, Liprandi argued that Uvarov retreated, not because he could not break through the French squares, but because 'he was twice ordered to retreat' by Kutuzov, who was too cautious to continue this attack. Justifying Platov's actions, he argued that the Ataman purposely kept his troops in the bushes because he wanted to keep Napoleon believing that the Cossacks were supported by infantry (hiding in shrubs) thus forcing him to divert more forces to the left flank. Liprandi was supported in his effort by Bolgovsky, who also suggested that some Cossacks dismounted, acting as infantry in order to deceive Napoleon. Bolgovsky believed that
had Platov acted strictly in compliance with the orders he received [...] the defeat of our army would have been imminent, since while he remained with his men in the defile, he continued to threaten the enemy; had he attacked with his inferior forces, the threat would have disappeared at once.'


自然的,描述这场战役的第一批史料不遗余力地为这些怯懦和不光彩的事迹掩饰。某些参与者试图尘封、篡改Platov-Uvarov突击的真相。因此,Liprandi争论道,Uvarov之所以撤退,并不是他无力击溃法军方阵,而是他两次被谨慎的库图佐夫命令后撤。对于Platov的行动,他的解释是为了让拿破仑相信这次骑兵突击有步兵的支持,从而分散法军兵力支援左翼,故意让他的部队待在林木里。Liprandi的努力被Bolgovsky所证实,后者曾建议部分哥萨克下马伪装成伴随步兵来迷惑拿破仑。Bolgovsky相信Platov完全按照命令实施了行动。俄军的胜利一度唾手可得,当他让部下在隘路上前进时,这些骑兵一直对敌人保持着威胁;如果他把这不算强大的力量投入进攻,那这种威胁马上就烟消云散了。

Bolgovsky was the first to provide a specific number of troops (23 000) that Napoleon allegedly had to divert to reinforce Eugene. Later, Soviet historians came up with the even higher number of 28,000 men. Neither calculation had any factual basis, but these figures were utilized by historians to portray the raid in a favourable light.

Bolgovsky起初认为拿破仑派出23000人增援欧仁。后来的苏联史学家把这个数字提升到了28000。尽管这个计算没有任何事实依据,但这些数字被史学家用来描述这次充满希望的突击。
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 18:34:47 | 显示全部楼层
好了,本人承包部分就此结束,时间仓促,学识有限,定有不妥遗漏之处,希望各位不吝赐教。谢谢
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-29 10:28:43 | 显示全部楼层
由于是分段分次完成,整本书也没看完,所以语气显得有些僵硬。先发上来是为了让大家帮忙修正译文中的不足,在整体无误之后,我会把中文部分整体修改一遍。辛苦各位了,谢谢
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-30 11:32:17 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 王法拉 于 2013-9-3 13:04 编辑

第141页内容

By late morning, as the fighting at Semeyonovskoye and Rayevsky's Redoubt escalated, Napoleon had only about 10,000 men, including some 2,000 cavalrymen, covering his extreme left flank while the majority of his forces were shifted to the centre and the right flank. As a result, his left wing became weakened and, as Pelet noted, 'attacking with its right shoulder forward [the French] gradually subsided from the New Smolensk Road, which served as their line of communication'.

早上晚些时候,在Semeyonovskoye 和Rayevsky多面堡战斗之后,拿破仑手中只有大约1万人可供调遣,这其中包括了约2千骑兵用来掩护他极为突出的左翼,而此时法军的主力已经往中央和右翼运动。这使得法军左翼变得虚弱,而像Pelet记录的:俄军右翼的进攻在法军的交通线——新斯摩棱斯克大道才逐渐平息。

我对红字部分拿不太准,因为不太了解这个Pelet。个人觉得,既然是“靠近新斯摩棱斯克大道“,那这"right shoulder"应该就是指的俄军右翼的此次骑兵突击,而且与后文中”哥萨克一直打到法军交通线“也有呼应。不知我翻译的是否正确,希望大家帮忙看一下,谢谢。@高守业  @卡佩 @装甲掷弹熊  


我看了看书中附的地图,我认为我第一次的翻译是正确的。法军的右翼/俄军左翼处于旧斯摩棱斯克大道,法军左翼/俄军右翼位于新斯摩棱斯克大道

点评

木有看上下文,看这段俺以为right shoulder是指法军【俺也是个渣,另,楼主头像让我倍感亲切】  发表于 2013-8-30 11:57
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-30 11:46:51 | 显示全部楼层
另外Platov   Platoff 和 Uvarov   Uwarow 都是指同一个人吧
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