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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 18:21:12 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 王法拉 于 2013-8-30 11:41 编辑

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Uvarov's charge forced Bavarian commander Preysing to order 'one of my brigades to move forward onto a near hill to support the infantry. My troops barely reached it when they were charged by several enemy Regiments' Bavarian officer Wiedemann recalled 'several Cossack sotnyas that made a feint attack, brandishing sabres and firing, against the [2] 1st Chevau-leger Brigade'. Another participant saw several sotnyas of Cossacks and Dragoons attacking the 21st Brigade and, although they were fired upon by Captain Wiedemann's battery and another French battery deployed behind this brigade, they executed a vigorous charge against it. They were hardheartedly met by carabiniers, who opened fire at a close range and forced them to retreat.

Uvarov的冲击迫使巴伐利亚指挥官Preysing调整命令。巴伐利亚军官Wiedemann回忆道“我所在的旅为了支援步兵前进占据附近的山头。 我的部队刚到了那里就遭到数个团的敌军冲锋,几百哥萨克发起了佯攻,他们挥舞着马刀和火把向第1轻骑兵旅冲去”。另一位亲历者看到数百哥萨克和龙骑兵正在攻击第21旅,尽管俄军遭到了Wiedemann和21旅后方一个法军炮排的火力覆盖,但他们仍然进行了顽强的冲击。法军则以近距离冷酷的弹雨迎接俄军,迫使他们撤退。

The Yelisavetgradskii Hussar Regiment was repelled and it was pursued by the Bavarian regiments, who were, in turn, charged by the Life Guard Uhlan Regiment, which was later commended for 'halting enemy cavalry and infantry columns that sought to attack and pierce the [Russian] line'."*" Artillery officer Radozhitsky, watching from the vicinity of the Gorki Heights, was  thrilled to see as our cavalry moved on the opposite riverbank in long lines of red and blue Hussars and Uhlans and then charged the French cavalry, driving it beyond Borodino; then it made an attack on an artillery battery and the Yelisavetgradskii Hussar Regiment seized two guns. But four enemy infantry regiments, deployed in squares, moved against our cavalry, which attacked each of them but was forced to retreat after being unable to break them.

Yelisavetgradskii骠骑兵团被巴伐利亚团击退了,后者紧紧地追赶着敌人,却遭遇接到“阻止敌军步骑兵攻击我军阵线”命令的俄军枪骑兵团反冲击。在高地附近的炮兵军官Radozhitsky激动地看着俄军骑兵渡过河流,红蓝相间的骠骑兵与枪骑兵列成长队,冲向法军骑兵,把他们赶出了博罗季诺;然后他们对一个炮兵阵地进行了攻击,Yelisavetgradskii骠骑兵团夺取了两门火炮。但是敌人的四个步兵团结成了方阵对我军进行反击,俄军被迫后撤,虽然对法军进行了攻击,但不能击退他们。

Not far from Radozhitsky, Mitarevsky also observed the fighting but his recollections are less favourably towards Uvarov's men. Mitarevsky observed as our cavalry quickly advanced and then charged forward [...] A thought flashed in my mind - as squares would discharge their muskets, our cavalry would charge and overwhelm them, and then it would be easier to deal with them. Yet, it proved quite different in reality: the cavalry approached [squares] to a musket range and then quickly turned back, without the [enemy] squares even firing. 'Did you see that? asked our staff officer, who just approached us, 'And there goes their attack!' We then made a few disparaging comments about them.

距Radozhitsky不远的Mitarevsky也目睹了这场战斗,但是他的回忆对Uvarov手下评价不高。当Mitarevsky看到俄军骑兵快速前进并发起冲锋的时候,他认为敌人方阵会丢盔弃甲,被俄军轻易收拾掉。但是现实却并不那样美好:骑兵一到步枪射程就后退了,敌人的方阵甚至没开火!“你看到了么!这也算进攻?”刚刚赶到的参谋质问道。我们心中都对这些骑兵产生了蔑视。

Notwithstanding Mitarevsky's criticism, the Russian cavalry did make several charges and sought to cross the river over the dam, but its efforts were thwarted by the French squares and the canister fire which thwarted two Russian crossing attempts.

尽管有Mitarevsky的批评,但俄军骑兵的确进行了数次冲锋并且从大坝上渡过河流,可是俄国人的努力被法军方阵所阻挡了,猛烈地炮火挫败了俄军的两次渡河尝试。

Uvarov and Platov then deployed the 2nd Horse Company of Lieutenant Colonel Goring to engage 'the enemy battery that was set up on the edge of the woods and acted against our Corps'. After a short artillery duel, that battery was forced to retreat but this minor success failed to bring any breakthrough for the Russians.

Uvarov 和 Platov派出了 Goring中校的第2骑炮连来对付那些“部署在林木边缘反击我们的法国炮兵”。在短暂的炮战之后,法军被迫后退,但这个微小的胜利并没有给俄军带来多少帮助。

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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 18:24:51 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 王法拉 于 2013-8-30 11:44 编辑

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A few miles south of the fight, Roth von Schreckenstein was initially concerned by the enemy move that 'seemed to be a serious flanking attack'. He saw several officers of the 7th Cuirassier Division, among them Colonel Leyser (of the Saxon Gardes du Corps) and brigade commanders Thielemann and Lepel, discussing this new development. Noting that no enemy infantry or artillery was committed to the attack, they quickly agreed that 'this movement, which initially was quite threatening, would have no serious effect'.Clausewitz, who was 'convinced from the beginning that this diversion could produce no result', noted in his memoirs that a diversion by 2,500 horse could not possibly have a decisive influence on a batde delivered on one side by 130,000 men; it could at best put a spoke in the wheel of their plans for a moment, and astonish them more or less.


在战斗南方几英里处,Roth von Schreckenstein开始认为敌军的行动是一场大规模的侧翼出击。他看到第7胸甲骑兵师的几个军官,萨克森Gardes du 军的Leyser上校、旅指挥官Thielemann和Lepel,在讨论新这新的状况。当注意到这次咋看来势汹汹的突击没有步炮协同后,他们认为俄军不过如此。“克劳塞维茨最初确信,俄军不会在这个方向收获战果”,从回忆中看出,他不认为2500骑兵的突击会对敌方的13万大军产生决定性的影响;最好的结果不过是拖延下敌人的行动,顺带震慑他们罢了。

It was already afternoon and the Russian Army - struggling to hold ground on the left flank and the centre, and with most of its reserves already committed - was in urgent need of respite. Uvarov's raid might have delivered it but, as we have seen, it quickly stalled. Still, as Clausewitz suggested, 'the Russians could contemplate no offensive movement other than that confided to General Uwarow [and so] all eyes were now turned to that officer'. Kutuzov sent several adjutants and staff officers to 'see whether anything could possibly be done in this quarter',and Colonel Toll, together with General Ozharovsky, also visited Uvarov 'in order to find means so that the raid, or to be precise, diversion, attempted by [Uvarov's] forces, had more noticeable effect on the events of that day. However, everyone came to conclusion that it was impossible to do.

时间已经到了下午,中央和左翼的俄军在拼死保卫他们的阵地,大部分后备军已经投入战斗,他们迫切地需要喘息重整。Uvarov的突击似乎起到了作用,但是就像我们看到的,效果并没有持续很久。 像克劳塞维茨暗示的“俄国人已经不考虑别的进攻行动,只是希望Uwarow能有所作为,此时他吸引了所有人的注意力。”  库图佐夫派出了数个副官和参谋去了解“现在我们能做些什么”, Toll上校和Ozharovsky将军也一起去拜访了Uvarov,所以这次Uvarov的突击——或者说是转移敌人注意的行动也就成了那天最引人注意的事情。但是,所有人得出的结论都指出那是个不可能的任务。


Clausewitz agreed with Toll that all rode back with the convicdon that General Uwarow could effect nothing. It both seemed no trifling matter to pass this brook under the fire of the enemy and so many troops were seen standing idle as reserves on the other side that it was plainly impossible for 2,500 horse to affect the result of the batde by any effort in that quarter.


克劳塞维茨同意Toll的看法,带着Uwarow将军对战局无能为力的证据骑马返回。看起来在敌人火力威胁下渡河不是件容易的事,并且敌人还有如此多的力量作为预备队,另一方面,此时2500骑兵显然不可能影响战斗结果。

The Russian cavalry forces, meantime, became split after Platov continued his movement westward to threaten the French rear and baggage train. As the Russian regular cavalry made its futile charges on a dam, the Cossack Ataman 'was a quarter of a league to the right of Uwarow, and looking for a passage over the marshy stream [Voina]'."^^^ Around noon, his troops had at length found a passage not far from Loginovo and quickly moved across the Voina, where Platov ordered his men 'to proceed to the right, and, attacking the enemy flank and rear, make a rapid attack against the enemy'. Lieutenant Flotow soon saw some Russian troops secretly moving towards a village [Bezzubovo] on our left flank; the village was defended by four companies and additional troops were sent to support them. But they were not sufficient to repel a superior enemy [...] and were forced to retreat beyond defile.

同时,俄军骑兵兵力也因为Platov向西威胁法军后卫和辎重而变的分散。 在俄军骑兵对大坝的例行冲击被击败后,Ataman派出四分之一的人到右面的Uwarow那里,寻找渡河通道。大约在中午,他的部队在距离Loginovo不远处找到了渡河点并迅速越过了Voina河,Platov命令部队继续向右侧运动,攻击敌人后卫和侧翼,朝他们发动突击。Flotow中尉不久看到一些俄军秘密地向左翼的Bezzubovo运动;Bezzubovo的守军有四个连,援军也随之派出。但是他们仍不足以击退占优势的敌人,被迫撤过了狭谷。


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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 18:26:49 | 显示全部楼层
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The Cossack manoeuvre threatened the left flank of Prince Eugene's troops opposite Uvarov's squadrons near the dam, and Platov reported that 'the enemy [probably Italian Chasseurs], located beyond the woods, was routed by the rapid attack of the [Cossack] Regiments and fled leaving many casualties behind'. Among those fleeing were the Italian Chasseurs a Cheval of Villata's 13th Brigade, who were rescued by the Bavarian troops of Major General von Preysing-Moos' 22nd Light Cavalry Brigade. The 4th and 5th Chevau-leger engaged the Cossacks and were supported by a two-gun battery under Lieutenant Belli de Pino that fired canister at the charging Cossacks. However, General Ornano soon ordered the battery to withdraw fearing the enemy might capture it."

哥萨克的行动威胁到了欧仁部队的左翼,而后者当时正面对大坝附近的Uvarov ,Platov报告到在林木前的敌人(可能是意大利轻骑兵)已经被哥萨克的突击驱逐,损失惨重。在逃跑的部队中,Villata第13旅的意大利猎骑兵被Preysing-Moos少将的巴伐利亚第22轻骑兵旅所救。第4和第5猎兵团在Belli de Pino中尉的炮兵排(两门炮)支援下对抗哥萨克。然而Ornano不久便命令炮兵撤退以避免大炮被俄军俘获。

It is unclear how far Platov's Cossacks advanced into the rear of the French Army. Platov reported that 'Colonel Balabin, acting on the flank and partially in the rear of the enemy, harassed and slew the enemy, capturing plenty of prisoners ...' Soviet scholars claimed the Cossacks went as far as Valuyevo, which was in the rear of the Grand Army.

Platov的哥萨克到底前进到了离法军后卫多远的位置,这并不清楚。Platov报告到“Balabin上校打击了敌军后方,抓获了大量俘虏……”苏联学者声称哥萨克最远到达了大军团后方的Valuyevo。

The news of the Russian appearance on the western bank of the Voina reached Napoleon just as he was about to order his Young Guard to advance in support of troops fighting near Semeyonovskoye and the Grand Redoubt, but 'a heavy fire beyond the stream [Voina], out of the brushwood, upon the left wing'^^^ made him postpone this decision. The Russians across the field could see 'commotion on the heights extending from Borodino to the Kolotsk Monastery [... ] and it was remarkable to see how hastily were many of the camp tents removed Unaware of the strength of the enemy raiding party. Napoleon realized that it could spread confusion among his troops and threaten his baggage train and lines of communication.

当俄军出现在Voina河西岸的消息传到拿破仑那里时,他正准备派出青年近卫军支援Semeyonovskoye和大多面堡附近的战斗,可是Voina河边、树丛、法军左翼激烈的交火使他不得不暂时搁下这个打算。俄军跨过原野,看到“高地上的骚乱蔓延到博罗季诺和Kolotsk Monastery,因没有料到敌军的突击,许多营帐被匆忙转移。拿破仑意识到这样下去混乱会在军队中弥漫,而后勤和交通线也岌岌可危。

On his orders, troops were dispatched to support Eugene, though it is unclear exactly which units were involved. Russian scholar Popov suggested the 1st Chevau-leger Lancier de la Garde Regiment, but Chlapowski noted that the unit did not participate in the fighting that day, while Krasinski and Zaluski argued that Napoleon sent only a squadron of this regiment, which was assigned to his escort. Furthermore, Dautancourt referred to Colbert's brigade, consisting of the 2nd Chevau-leger Lancier de la Garde Regiment (Dutch), while General Anthouard mentioned the chasseurs a cheval units. Napoleon then went himself to investigate what was happening on the left flank. Although many French memoirs fail to record this trip, Dautancourt and Pelet tell us that Napoleon travelled to the Kolocha river and, after making a quick observation, returned to his headquarters near Shevardino.

根据拿破仑的命令,增援欧仁的部队被派出了,尽管援军包括哪些部队还不清楚。俄国学者Popov暗示是第1轻骑兵Lancier de la Garde团,但是Chlapowski认为这支部队并没有参与当天的战斗,Krasinski 和Zaluski则认为拿破仑仅仅派出了担任护驾任务的一个中队。此外,Dautancourt提到,第2 轻骑兵Lancier de la Garde 团(荷兰)属于Colbert的旅,而Anthouard将军提到的是猎骑兵单位。拿破仑随后亲自前往左翼调查。尽管许多法国亲历者漏掉了这段回忆,Dautancourt 和 Pelet告诉我们拿破仑来到了Kolocha河,经过短暂的观察,他返回了Shevardino附近的司令部。

One can contrast this testimony with the claims of many Russian/ Soviet historians that Napoleon personally led one of the Guard divisions to reinforce his left flank and remained there for hours to stabilize it. Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky claims that Napoleon remained with Eugene on the left flank until 3pm and his absence from the headquarters at Shevardino gave the Russians a breathing space in the centre and on the left. Danilevsky wrote: 'Those who fought at Borodino certainly remember that minute when the determination of enemy attacks declined along the entire line and the firepower became considerably weaker and we, as someone justly noted, "could breath freely [at last.]'" Eugene Tarle, described Napoleon 'flying like an arrow' to the left flank, where, as Garnich and Beskrovny agreed, he remained for two hours."

可以把证词和许多苏联和俄国史学家声称做个对比,即拿破仑本人指挥一个近卫师去增援左翼并花了数个小时来巩固阵地。Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky声称拿破仑在左翼和欧仁一直待到下午三点,在他离开Shevardino指挥部的时间里,俄军左翼和中央获得了喘息的机会。Danilevsky写到“在博罗季诺战斗过的人一定记得,那时敌人攻击的决心全线消退,炮火也显著减弱,我们终于能喘口气了”。 Eugene Tarle说拿破仑像箭一样赶到了左翼,Garnich 和 Beskrovny也认同拿破仑在左翼待了两个小时这一说法。
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 18:28:39 | 显示全部楼层
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Back at the dam, Ciausewitz saw that, with Platov attacking their left flank, the French troop immediately in our front feared to be locked in the morass and made a side niovement. The Cossack Regiment of the Guard attached to Uwarow's Corps could stand it no longer: like a rocket with its tail, they were over the dam like lightning and into the wood to join their brethren.

回到坝前的战场,克劳塞维茨看到,因为Platov攻击了敌军左翼,当前的法军立刻陷入了恐慌。Uwarow军的哥萨克团已经按耐不住,他们如同迅速越过了大坝,像闪电一样去支援林木中战斗的兄弟们。

They were followed by the Yelisavetgradskii Hussars. Opposing them, Colonel Seyssel led his 4th Chevau-leger to help the Italian Chasseurs against the Cossacks, while Colonel Gaddum's Bavarians of the 5th Chevau-leger hurried to protect the battery. The front lines of Seyssel's troops became disordered after the fleeing Italians passed through them, and were soon under Cossack attacks from left flank and rear. To face them, Major Sigmund Bieber of the 4th Chevau-leger recalled seeing the second line of his division, which consisted of the squadrons of Zandt and Hortling, turn back and fire their carbines. However, this did not help and Seyssel's entire brigade was soon forced to retreat behind a square of the Italian Guard. It quickly rallied there and charged the [Russians] who reached the square, and drove them back across the stream with heavy casualties.

Yelisavetgradskii骠骑兵紧随其后。在敌人方面,Seyssel上校指挥他的第4轻骑兵队协助意大利轻骑兵反击哥萨克,与此同时属于Gaddum上校的第5轻骑兵队的巴伐利亚人也火速赶来保护大炮。意大利人的溃兵打乱了Seyssel先头部队的阵列,哥萨克也从左面和后方杀来。第4轻骑兵队的Sigmund Bieber少校回忆道,为了进行反击,他队伍的第二列中的Zandt 和 Hortling中队返身杀来,用卡宾枪进行射击。可是这也不能阻止Seyssel旅的迅速失败,他们被迫退回到意大利近卫军的方阵之后。他们迅速地重整了队形,然后向尾随而来的俄军发动了冲击,俄军在付出惨重损失后被赶回了对岸。

Flotow also recalled that 'to avoid being isolated, [Bavarian] brigades had to retreat towards the approaching infantry square', while the artilleryman, Captain Wiedemann, saw 'the Italian chevau-leger regiment driven back to [his] Bavarian battery', thus preventing him from opening fire. 'After the [Italians] passed between the guns,' Wiedemann recalled, 'it was already too late for us to open fire against the enemy, who was so at such close distance that the battery had to retreat immediately.' As his subordinates began to remove their guns, one of the limbers broke down and Wiedemann rushed to help remove it. However, as he brought new limber a cannon-ball fired by a French battery, which bombarded the Russian cavalry, killed the horse and made it impossible to save the gun. The soldiers, who remained with me to remove the piece, were now too close to the cavalry melee as the mass of the Russian cavalry advance against us on a wide front.

Flotow也回忆道“为了避免被孤立,巴伐利亚旅不得不向步兵方阵撤退”,与此同时,炮兵上尉Wiedemann看见“意大利轻骑兵团跑向了巴伐利亚炮兵“,这使得后者无法开火。”当意大利人跑出我们的射界之后,敌人已经离我们很近了,开火阻击成为泡影,我们必须立刻撤退。“在他的部下转移火炮的时候,一台拖炮车出了问题,Wiedemann冲过去帮忙推车。可是当他找到新拖炮车的时候,一颗轰击俄军的法国炮弹打死了挽马,这门炮不得不放弃了。大量俄军骑兵从宽阔的正面向我们冲来,他们离我们太近了,和我一起留下来推炮的士兵都能感受到他们马刀的寒光。

Captain Wiedemann's men quickly retreated but were caught up by the Yelisavetgradskii Hussars (some of them armed with lances) and Cossacks, some of whom charged the Captain himself: 'One Cossack would have certainly pierced me with his lance if not for an Italian Chasseurs a Cheval who threw him off the horse at the very moment when the [Cossack] aimed his deadly lance at me.' Wiedemann then moved his guns towards the units of the Italian Guard and Delzon's division, which formed squares to repel the enemy charges. His battery had several guns damaged and Wiedemann could utilize only two remaining pieces, which he quickly led to support the counter-attacking Bavarian cavalry."

Wiedemann上尉的手下立刻撤退,可还是被Yelisavetgradskii骠骑兵(部分装备了骑枪)和哥萨克赶上,有几个俄军向上尉冲来,他回忆道:“如果不是一个意大利猎骑兵在那一瞬间把他拽下马,那哥萨克的骑枪就会戳中我了”。 Wiedemann随后把他的火炮移向了正结成方阵反击敌军冲锋的Delzon师和意大利近卫。他的炮兵排损失了数门火炮,能用的只剩下两门,他立刻带着这两门火炮前去支援巴伐利亚骑兵。
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 18:30:38 | 显示全部楼层
152页

Among the Italian guardsmen Wiedemann observed was Laugier, who found himself 'face to face with the enemy cavalry. Formed in squares, we advanced in echelon to meet the Russians, who by now reached the Italian batteries, extinguished their fire and overthrown Delzon's regiments'. Supported by the Itahan Guard, the Bavarian and Itahan cavahymen counter-attacked. Combe saw the 6th Hussars and the 8th Chasseurs making successful charges against the Cossacks, who quickly retreated while Dautancourt had his men search thick bushes and woods to capture any remaining Russians and his men did seize several Cossacks.Platov's men retreated across the dam on the Voina and were protected by a Russian battery that engaged the pursuing Bavarian cavalry. Prince Eugene, realizing that the enemy raid was effectively over, turned his Guard units back to prepare for the assault on Rayevsky's Redoubt.

Laugier正在Wiedemann所看到的意大利近卫军中,他们“和敌人骑兵面对面,结成方阵,排好梯队,前进迎击那些冲向意大利炮兵的俄军,这些敌人已经压制了Delzon师的团队”在意大利近卫军的支援下,来自巴伐利亚和意大利的骑兵发起了反冲击。Combe看到第6骠骑兵和第8轻骑兵对哥萨克进行了成功的冲锋,让敌人立刻进行撤退,与此同时,Dautancourt带着他的手下在浓密的树丛中追捕残余的俄军,而且也的确抓到了几个哥萨克俘虏。Platov的手下撤过Voina河上的大坝,在一个俄国炮兵排的支援下和追击来的巴伐利亚骑兵对峙。欧仁亲王在意识到敌人的突击已经毫无威胁后,把他的近卫部队调回来准备对Rayevsky多面堡的突击。

On the Russian side, Uvarov understood that the French would soon try to divert some of their forces from the left flank to the centre, so he sought to maintain pressure on Napoleon's flank. Uvarov later reported: 'I sought to remain in my position and, through my movements, to trick the enemy into believing that I would make another attack.' He continued his feint attacks until 3pm when he finally received Kutuzov's order to return to his initial battle position. Clausewitz recalled that the Russian cavalry retreated between 4pm and 5pm and assumed its position behind the Gorki Heights. As for Platov's Cossacks, some of them seem to have returned to their initial position, while others remained on the western bank of the Kolocha, since Platov reported that his troops harassed the enemy until late that night."^^® Liprandi, who seems to have consulted some Cossack participants, noted that as Platov was withdrawing his troops, he ordered his regimental commanders to take note of the terrain and surroundings, in case they had to operate there at night."

从俄国方面,Uvarov认为法军很快就会从左翼向中央调集部队,于是他决定对拿破仑保持压力。Uvarov后来报告:“我想留在那里,通过我的运动,让法军误认为我还会发起另一次进攻”。佯攻一直持续到下午3点,直到库图佐夫传令让他返回攻击发起位置。克劳塞维茨回忆道俄军骑兵在下午4点至5点撤退,在Gorki高地后隐蔽起来。一些Platov的哥萨克好像返回了初始阵地,其他的留在Kolocha河西岸,后来Platov报告说他的部队对法军进行了整夜袭扰。Liprandi似乎请教了一些参战哥萨克,提到Platov撤回部队的时候,让他的团级军官留意地型和环境,以备夜间行动。

Thus ended the Russian cavalry raid against the French left flank. Compared to other sectors, the fighting here was less intense and both sides lost a couple of hundred men. The Life Guard Hussar Regiment had twelve killed and seventeen wounded, the Yelisavetgradskii Hussars had five killed, fourteen wounded and twenty missing, the Life Guard Cossacks lost three killed and thirty-two wounded, the Life Guard Uhlan and the Nezhinskii Dragoons had no losses at all.^^^ On the French side, the most substantial loss was the death of General of Brigade Leonard Huard de St Aubin, commanding the 1st Brigade of the 13th Division, who was killed by a canister shot while commanding his infantry.

俄军骑兵对法军左翼的突击结束了。和别的地方相比,这里的战斗并不激烈,双方都损失了数百人。骠骑兵团有12人阵亡,17人受伤,Yelisavetgradskii骠骑兵有5人阵亡,14人受伤,另有20人失踪,哥萨克有3人阵亡,32人受伤,枪骑兵和Nezhinskii龙骑兵全然无损。在法国方面,最大的损失是第13师第1旅指挥官Leonard Huard de St Aubin战死,他在指挥步兵的时候中弹身亡。

The purpose and outcome of the raid have been debated, often bitterly, for the past 190 years. Russian generals and staff officers were more disapproving of the whole enterprise than junior officers and the rank-and-file, and participants were, in general, more critical than later historians, especially those of the Soviet era. Although poorly implemented, it should be said that the raid did produce an important result: it diverted French forces at a crucial moment, when they were preparing for the assault on the Russian centre. The two or three hour delay it caused allowed the Russians to rally and regroup, while the French troops, especially Latour-Maubourg's cavalry, suffered under the fire of the Russian artillery.

这次突击的目的和结果在过去的190年间常常被尖酸地争论。俄国将军和参谋比中下级军官士兵更不赞同这次进攻,而参与者对它的批评也比后世学者(特别是苏联时代)来得更多。尽管执行的很拙劣,但是它的确对战局产生了重要影响:在法军准备进攻俄军中央阵地的时候,分散了法军的实力。在争取到的这两三个小时中,俄军得以恢复重组,而此时法军,特别是Latour-Maubourg的骑兵则暴露在俄军炮火之下。
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 18:32:58 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 王法拉 于 2013-8-29 14:22 编辑

153页-154页相关内容

Among those praising the raid, Friedrich von Schubert went as far as to claim that the manoeuvre 'produced tremendous results and added certain indecision to enemy attacks. Napoleon's own tent was quickly removed and his Guard was organized into square. The Kolotsk Monastery, where the main [French] hospital and infirmary was established, was taken over by panic.' On the opposite side, Clausewitz, as we have seen, was very critical of the entire venture.Many senior Russian officers believed the raid had the potential for tremendous success but was mishandled. They shared Clausewitz's and Lowenstern's accusations against Uvarov for sluggish performance and failure to take full advantage of the manoeuvre. Barclay de Tolly believed that: 'if this attack were carried out with greater firmness and not limited to only wearing out the enemy, it would have had brilliant consequences'. Nikolai Muravyev was certain that, if well executed, this 'surprise attack could have decided the battle outcome to our favour' and a similar opinion was voiced by Norov, among others. Furthermore, Golitsyn, who served as ordinance officer to Kutuzov, recalled that Kutuzov coldly greeted Uvarov upon his return from the raid and, hearing his report, told him: 'I know everything and may God forgive you for it!'"^^"^ The fact that Platov and Uvarov were the only generals not nominated for rewards after the battle speaks volumes about the Commander-in-Chief's dissatisfaction with their actions. In December 1812, Kutuzov even wrote to Alexander, stating that he could not recommend Uvarov for any rewards, since he failed to carry out the raid successfully. As for Platov and his Cossacks, Kutuzov told the Emperor that 'they did not fight that day as such'.

根据那些袭击的报告,Friedrich von Schubert宣称这次行动产生了惊人的效果并且让敌人的攻击更加谨慎犹豫。拿破仑自己的军帐立刻被移到了近卫军方阵里。法军的主要医疗基地 Kolotsk Monastery 也已经被恐慌所笼罩。在另一方面,就像我们看到的那样,克劳塞维茨对这次冒险指责颇多。许多俄国高级军官都认为这次突击本来可以取得巨大的成功,仅仅是没有实施好而已。他们用克劳塞维茨和Lowenstern的指责来反驳Uvarov的消极表现,认为这样丧失了进一步发展胜利的机会。巴克莱相信:“如果这次进攻由我们的主力来发起,而不仅仅作为牵制疲惫敌军之举,那我们将会取得伟大的胜利”。 Nikolai Muravyev坚信如果这次突击能得到良好的执行,那将会把胜利的天平倾向俄军,Norov和其他人也持同样的观点。此外,当时担任库图佐夫传令官的Golitsyn回忆道库图佐夫冷漠地迎接了撤出战场的Uvarov并听取了他的报告,他对Uvarov说:“我知道所有的事,但愿上帝会饶恕你!”事实上,只有Platov 和Uvarov没有在战斗结束后得到嘉奖,因为指挥部并不满意他们在战斗中的表现。在1812年12月,库图佐夫在给Alexander的信中提道,因为Uvarov的失败突击,他不会给他任何嘉奖。至于Platov和他的哥萨克,库图佐夫告诉沙皇“他们那天几乎没有战斗”。

A gallant officer, Uvarov saw his reputation somewhat tarnished at Borodino. Nevertheless, he served with distinction in the 1813-14 campaigns and was promoted to the rank of general for his actions at Leipzig. Platov's case is interesting because participants criticized him for failing to break through to Napoleon's baggage train, which would have had a major impact on the course of the battle. The Ataman had already established himself as a capable leader of Cossacks, but was also known for arrogance, a tendency to bicker with other generals, and a fondness for alcohol. A. Muravyev noted that one of the reasons for Platov's poor performance at Borodino was his hatred of Barclay de Tolly, to whom he was formally subordinated. Yet, other participants reveal that there was also one more, often overlooked, factor. Nikolai Muravyev blamed the failure of the raid on the inept orders and intoxicated condition of Count Platov [...] who was drunk that day [...] [and] Kutuzov refused to give him overall command [of the raid]; the abilities of Uvarov, who was [the] next senior officer after Platov, were mediocre and well known to everyone ...

Uvarov自认他勇敢的名声在博罗季诺受到了污损。然而他继续挂着奖章活跃在1813-1814年的战役中,并因在莱比锡的战功而得到晋升。Platov的情况很有意思,因为参战者认为他没有完成切断拿破仑补给线这一至关重要的任务。Platov早已在哥萨克中树立了领袖地位,但同时也因傲慢、与别的将领争吵以及嗜酒著称。A. Muravyev注解道,Platov在博罗季诺的拙劣表现与他对前上级巴克莱的憎恨不无关系。但是参战者们揭示了另一个常被人忽视的原因。Nikolai Muravyev将突击失败的原因归责于命令的拙劣和Platov的醉酒,而且库图佐夫并没有赋予他全局指挥的权力;而他的行动副手Uvarov,则是人所共知的能力平庸。

Similar testimony can be found in the personal journal of Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky, who recorded that Platov was 'in a drunken stupor [...] which, among other things, made Kutuzov to tell me [...] that this was the first time he had seen a full general dead drunk in the midst of a decisive battle.

类似的证据可以在Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky的个人日记里找到,他把Platov记录为“状态昏昏沉沉,如同喝醉一般”,通过别的事情,库图佐夫告诉还告诉Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky ,这是他第一次见到一个上将在决战的时候还喝得烂醉。


It was natural, then, that when the first histories of the battle were written attempts were made to gloss over these awkward and unpleasant incidents' Historians and some participants tried to suppress or falsify the events of the Platov-Uvarov raid. Thus, Liprandi argued that Uvarov retreated, not because he could not break through the French squares, but because 'he was twice ordered to retreat' by Kutuzov, who was too cautious to continue this attack. Justifying Platov's actions, he argued that the Ataman purposely kept his troops in the bushes because he wanted to keep Napoleon believing that the Cossacks were supported by infantry (hiding in shrubs) thus forcing him to divert more forces to the left flank. Liprandi was supported in his effort by Bolgovsky, who also suggested that some Cossacks dismounted, acting as infantry in order to deceive Napoleon. Bolgovsky believed that
had Platov acted strictly in compliance with the orders he received [...] the defeat of our army would have been imminent, since while he remained with his men in the defile, he continued to threaten the enemy; had he attacked with his inferior forces, the threat would have disappeared at once.'


自然的,描述这场战役的第一批史料不遗余力地为这些怯懦和不光彩的事迹掩饰。某些参与者试图尘封、篡改Platov-Uvarov突击的真相。因此,Liprandi争论道,Uvarov之所以撤退,并不是他无力击溃法军方阵,而是他两次被谨慎的库图佐夫命令后撤。对于Platov的行动,他的解释是为了让拿破仑相信这次骑兵突击有步兵的支持,从而分散法军兵力支援左翼,故意让他的部队待在林木里。Liprandi的努力被Bolgovsky所证实,后者曾建议部分哥萨克下马伪装成伴随步兵来迷惑拿破仑。Bolgovsky相信Platov完全按照命令实施了行动。俄军的胜利一度唾手可得,当他让部下在隘路上前进时,这些骑兵一直对敌人保持着威胁;如果他把这不算强大的力量投入进攻,那这种威胁马上就烟消云散了。

Bolgovsky was the first to provide a specific number of troops (23 000) that Napoleon allegedly had to divert to reinforce Eugene. Later, Soviet historians came up with the even higher number of 28,000 men. Neither calculation had any factual basis, but these figures were utilized by historians to portray the raid in a favourable light.

Bolgovsky起初认为拿破仑派出23000人增援欧仁。后来的苏联史学家把这个数字提升到了28000。尽管这个计算没有任何事实依据,但这些数字被史学家用来描述这次充满希望的突击。
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-28 18:34:47 | 显示全部楼层
好了,本人承包部分就此结束,时间仓促,学识有限,定有不妥遗漏之处,希望各位不吝赐教。谢谢
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-29 10:28:43 | 显示全部楼层
由于是分段分次完成,整本书也没看完,所以语气显得有些僵硬。先发上来是为了让大家帮忙修正译文中的不足,在整体无误之后,我会把中文部分整体修改一遍。辛苦各位了,谢谢
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-30 11:32:17 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 王法拉 于 2013-9-3 13:04 编辑

第141页内容

By late morning, as the fighting at Semeyonovskoye and Rayevsky's Redoubt escalated, Napoleon had only about 10,000 men, including some 2,000 cavalrymen, covering his extreme left flank while the majority of his forces were shifted to the centre and the right flank. As a result, his left wing became weakened and, as Pelet noted, 'attacking with its right shoulder forward [the French] gradually subsided from the New Smolensk Road, which served as their line of communication'.

早上晚些时候,在Semeyonovskoye 和Rayevsky多面堡战斗之后,拿破仑手中只有大约1万人可供调遣,这其中包括了约2千骑兵用来掩护他极为突出的左翼,而此时法军的主力已经往中央和右翼运动。这使得法军左翼变得虚弱,而像Pelet记录的:俄军右翼的进攻在法军的交通线——新斯摩棱斯克大道才逐渐平息。

我对红字部分拿不太准,因为不太了解这个Pelet。个人觉得,既然是“靠近新斯摩棱斯克大道“,那这"right shoulder"应该就是指的俄军右翼的此次骑兵突击,而且与后文中”哥萨克一直打到法军交通线“也有呼应。不知我翻译的是否正确,希望大家帮忙看一下,谢谢。@高守业  @卡佩 @装甲掷弹熊  


我看了看书中附的地图,我认为我第一次的翻译是正确的。法军的右翼/俄军左翼处于旧斯摩棱斯克大道,法军左翼/俄军右翼位于新斯摩棱斯克大道

点评

木有看上下文,看这段俺以为right shoulder是指法军【俺也是个渣,另,楼主头像让我倍感亲切】  发表于 2013-8-30 11:57
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 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-30 11:46:51 | 显示全部楼层
另外Platov   Platoff 和 Uvarov   Uwarow 都是指同一个人吧
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